Here is my nuts to bolts explainaion of why there is no god. Please note if you want to copy some or all of it, it is copywrite material. Ask me or buy at lulu.com
If you see any errors let me know. I want to republish.
Note the bible is short. How can a long contraction filled bible be useful in having a solid philosophy?
Dave of Odd
author is David O’Keefe
United States citizen
inherent copyrights August 2008
Reproduction in part or full is prohibited without permission from the author
are you leading your one life you have to live
or are you being led by others or their ideas?
I. - Acknowledgement
II. - Preface and Justification
III. - God Myth and Myths
IV. - Entropy Configuring Life
V. - Dark Matter Enabling Life
VI. - Universe Creation Without God
VII. - Meaning of Universe & Human Ethics
VIII. - Human Population Chaos Danger
IX. - Basic Physical Laws of the Universe
X. - Black Holes and Dark Energy
XI. - Individuals and Death
Nothing is the nub of the creation and ending of the universe. The concept of nothing in time absent non-existent space is the genesis of life so nothing needs to be gratefully acknowledged. Life lovers owe their existence and ability to love to nothing.
II. Preface and Justification
Atheism’s argument against the existence of god is time and time again stymied by the basic question from faith in god persons in discourse about the why and how of reality, about the universe and life. The question repeated very reliably is “How was the universe created without a creator?”
Answering that the universe is a result of another universe just backs up the question to the creation of the other universe. Answering that it is illogical to ponder the question because it will never be discerned scientifically also defeats the atheists because it leads to the conclusion that god is eminently responsible. Other answers such as “in another space unknown to us, a form of matter collided with anti-matter which became uncontrolled and created the energy, space and time that is our universe” similarly to the first answer simply backs the question and answer one step backward. That is, a god must be the creator of the beginning matter. The same is true for answers that say the universe is part of another higher dimension universe.
The Odd Average Atheist Bible is meant to finally provide a concrete answer to the creation question from the god believers, both for the universe and for life. The answer provided for the creation of the universe is conjecture (a myth itself as there is no way to see before the beginning of time). But the conjecture is carefully constructed so it answers the question without logical loopholes that allow the god faithful to gloat in ignorance that god logically must exist since atheists do not have an answer to the question of how the universe came into being. Now the atheist has a suitable answer to squash the gloating and real philosophical discourse can be furthered.
III. God Myth and Myths
Myths are useful in rare cases. When there is no answer possible to an important fundamental question for a cultural set of humans, some plausible culturally accepted myth is a reasonable strategy so when individuals solidify their personalities, they have a foundation for the philosophy within their personalities. The myth of the Jewish and Christian god has been a very successful myth with many positive contributions.
The creation of the universe is certainly unanswerable and a myth is needed. The atheist needs an answer better than god and this bible provides that answer. The creation of life is also better answered with a plausible conjecture and no longer needs a myth of god to explain “the miracle of life.” This bible advocates that entropy by itself necessitated life and by itself along with Dark Matter created life and responsible for life since then
A few observations follow about the god gloaters and the fevered faithful “god must exist and all be faithful to the belief in god or all go to hell.” The whole faith in god idea without evidence leads to accepting lies generally in discourse. Lying and lack of adherence to truth is a death knell for humanity, it is the number one reason for murder and war. Atheism replacing faith in god would advance truth telling so religion is negative in that major aspect.
Make no mistake, for the last 2000 years, the faith in god has pacified the masses individual by individual and was a great improvement versus tribalism in the progress of civilization. Make no mistake, that era and the need for a pacifier is past and needs to be buried. Faith in truth is a better way to improve the progress of civilization at this critical junction of humanity’s journey. Faith in truth implies that humanity, individual by individual and whole civilizations acknowledge there is no god.
Counter to the pursuit of moral good, perversely a good number of god believers, openly or in lie and deceit, pursue evil in absurd confidence that faith in god and faith in god alone absolves them of living morally right. God believers also have an entity (a much made up entity that becomes a made up authority in the minds of the believers) which they can pray to - for good will or ill will. It is absurd enough that if god answered the prayers pandemonium would reign at least on Earth for the language thinking humans. Atheist have no entity to pray to for their wants or needs. Hoping for fortunate fate is all atheists have.
The myth of a god, an all powerful god, a god invented/imagined by humans has had another positive contribution to civilization other than pacification. There is a remarkable correlation to how god is defined and the progress mankind has made to be more like the all powerful god. Humanity’s industrial prowess and technological/science achievements are akin to humanity striving to attain the power of god. Art reflecting reality beautifully has been bettered because beauty was thought admired by god. In science, as humans have become more “all powerful,” babies are conceived at will in test tubes, life forms that are new creatures are created with gene splicing, new atoms are formed by humans that are not found in nature. There are some sub-atomic scientists that contemplate that mankind could create universes; even if the contemplation is impossible in reality, the striving towards this myth of an all knowledgeable god is apparent. Humans have become, perhaps with the myth of god as a helper, more intelligent. Great progress has been made in understanding the physical laws of the universe and with that the great progress on understanding life. The one god power humans will never attain or will any life entity in the universe is immortality.
The conclusion - god as a myth has had its time to be constructive and destructive. It as a myth that served well and ill-well. It as a myth needs to be replaced with a more intelligent myth. With a more intelligent myth for universe and life creation, a myth without a god, truth will be bolstered. Humanity is at a point where the striving toward more knowledge is a secondary issue to those of striving toward truth telling and renouncing lying as wholly uncivilized. Humans have enough knowledge to make progress that is necessary now, but lack the morality needed.
Myths are also historically useful for children asking important questions to adults where the answer is known but telling them would wipe out innocence important for the proper development of children. So when asked where babies come from, parents do not mention the sex and vaginal delivery but say storks deliver babies. Other children are given the same myth answer so it has credence. There are tactful non-lying truthful answers for these situations that still protect the innocence of children, and as truth telling is critical to human progress all myths need to be identified as fiction if they are provable to be untrue.
Currently due to a plethora of discourse interconnections and the planet having too big a human population, myths and cults are becoming more prevalent just when intelligent people collectively in civilized societies should be dismissing myths as fiction. Modern individuals adopt old inane myths such as the universe began at a particular spot on Earth. This kind of myth adoption or clinging to myths that are not plausible (in other words, inane) is really dangerous because it eventually defeats the collective responsibility humans have to thrive successfully without self-inflicted destruction of civilization.
IV. Entropy Configuring Life
Entropy is the “all knowing” overseer in the universe. For example: part of the electricity used by each and every computer is the result of "AND" operations on bits in a computer where the computer clears the registers of the operands and only saves the result of the operation. Take a simple computation where a computer adds two plus two with the result four. Computers are designed to throw away how four was found. The registers are cleared that contained the two's and they could have been three and one instead of two and two.
This is an example of information loss and the universe considers that an increase in entropy (which the universe wants). Electricity is used and heat is lost for each such operation in a computer.
Entropy is cognizant all over the universe overseeing all activity at every nanosecond. Another example: words and sentences are written on a first piece of paper and on a second piece of paper ink is simply sprayed randomly equal to the ink of the words and sentences on the first piece of paper. If the written paper is burned it will generate more heat than the random ink paper. Entropy is carefree concerning the amount of energy used to create the first and second completed pieces of paper. Entropy is cognizant the first piece of paper completed is more organized then the second piece of paper completed which is why there is a heat difference in the burning of each. Entropy accounts and drives universally every disorganization of order being disordered.
Entropy is not simple to understand because what is ultimate disorder to humans that define order as structure, is the ultimate order entropy relentlessly dictates. In other words, there is legitimate question whether entropy is an increase in disorder, or, totally opposite, an increase in order. The dichotomy is related to the observer: the universe considers its relentless pursuit of entropy as increasing order, eliminating uniqueness and structure - but to an observer who measures uniqueness and structure as orderly then the relentless pursuit is seen as increasing disorder.
How is it nature and humans are able to create highly unique structures in seeming defiance of entropy? The answer is the established entropy somewhere was expanded by more than the order gained. A higher amount of less available (less useful) energy increases entropy and randomness in any closed system is one way of indirectly defining entropy. So any orderly unique construction in a closed system causes in some bigger closed system less useful energy and more randomness. The second thermodynamic law states that in any closed system within the universe and for the universe as a closed system, entropy increases as time goes forward.
For two reasons, a simple entropy universe model is provided below. First, the model depicts what is defined as “entropy increasing with time,” and clarifies the concept of oppositeness of order compared to disorder.
The second more important reason is the model is the basis for a plausible conjecture. Namely, entropy on its own caused pre-biological molecule configurations that are the basis for life. For example entropy on its own was the cause for DNA and cell wall molecule configurations. This conjecture is discussed in more detail at the conclusion of the description of the simple entropy universe model.
Simple Entropy Universe Model
A simple model universe depicting how entropy increases as time moves forward is seven spaces filled with two x's and five o's. The basis for order in this universe is how many o's occupy spaces between the two x's. There are 21 unique combinations of seven spaces filled with two x's and five o's, equally likely if the universe had no order basis.
But what the universe sees is that there is: one combination where o's between x's is five, two combinations where o's between x's is four, three combinations where o's between x's is three, four combinations where o's between x's is two, five combinations where o's between x's is one, and six combinations where o's between x's is zero. The universe sees the five o's between x’s as the most unique combination and the zero o's between x’s as the least unique combination.
Statistical Entropy is defined as S=-kxprobabilityxln(probability), where k is a constant called Boltzmann’s constant. So in this simple model universe the entropy levels respectively are (disregarding k): .14, .22, .28, .32, .34, .36. So no matter what entropy level the model universe is at (for example at .22, the condition of four o's between x's), the entropy will never decrease (for example go to .14) as time goes forward. As time goes forward the universe will progress to the next highest entropy level continuing until it reaches its maximum entropy (in this case .36).
In this simple model universe there is a clock, and at every second the x's need to move or not move. There is a start energy, Available Energy Level 5 (AE5). The energy is drained off as follows, anywhere in the scheme of the universe, to not move the x needs .4 units of available energy, and to move .6 units of available energy. Note: the x's will not be able to move and keep the entropy level at the lowest entropy (the configuration xooooox, termed entropy level 5 because five o's are between the x's). But when the x's can move and keep the entropy level (which the x’s can do at all entropy levels except level 5), the probability for the model universe is 50% chance an individual x will move, 50% chance an individual x will stay in place. The x's will only move to keep at their current entropy level until the available energy at that level is depleted, then they move to a configuration that is one entropy higher. This operation of an x or x's moving so a higher entropy is realized requires only .1 unit of energy and takes a second to accomplish.
Note: the extra energy of moving an x within an entropy level that happens only statistically according to probability, is the hidden information metric of the model universe. Looking exactly at every second the outside observer can see the extra energy and x moving (while to the universe it is wholly inconsequential as long as it moving does not violate entropy) which is information, but long term the information is lost and hidden in less useable energy. In the universe humans live in, this is analogous to why erasing bits in a computer or burning coherent ink costs energy.
The energy drained off from AE5 is conserved in AE4, the energy drained off from AE4 is conserved in AE3, until at the final highest entropy all energy is in AE0. AE0 Energy used by x's in the highest entropy level is returned to AE0. The model universe, at final entropy, is a perfect engine in that AE0 energy is always available for the x‘s to move as long as the configuration change is a highest entropy change and then the AE0 energy is returned in full to AE0. AE5 can be used by x's in configurations in entropy level 5 (defined as five o's between x's, specifically the configuration xooooox) or x's below entropy level 5. Energy from AE4 cannot supply x's in entropy level 5, but can for levels 4 and below. The pattern continues until all energy is in AE0 where the energy is only available for x's in the highest entropy configurations (entropy level 0, the configuration oooxxoo for example or any of the other five configurations). Note: entropy level 5 is the lowest entropy and entropy level 0 is the highest entropy for the model universe.
Consider an example where the simple model universe begins with 9.1 AE5 energy units. The universe begins in the configuration xooooox; it's most unique configuration and the one with the lowest statistical entropy. Actually, since the initial configuration is known its statistical entropy is not .14 but zero. The other levels of entropy are valid and for this analysis the initial configuration is assigned the statistical entropy of .14. Peace for the model universe is like reaching a chess game end game stalemate, it wants to reach any configuration that has zero o's between the x's (for example, xxooooo; for example ooxxooo, etc.) and then its work is done except for maintaining the easiest entropy.
As the universe starts that the x's have no AE5, so the first second each x is supplied with one AE5 unit. Since the x's cannot move without increasing entropy while energy at its entropy level is still available, they can only drain off .4 units each to AE4 in the configuration xooooox for each second the clock increases. The next second since the x's retain .6 units, each x is supplied with .4 AE5 units to fill it up and in the same second similar to the first second .4 units go to AE4 from each x at this entropy level.
The AE5 drains away to AE4 (except for .1 unit) in 10 seconds (2 units first second, .8 units for next ten seconds). Another second is clocked and entropy at that point increases (an x or x's move with drainage of .1 energy unit). The total time for the configuration to go from entropy level 5 to entropy level 4 is 11 seconds. Now one of two configuration is now in place. At entropy level 4 where the statistical entropy is .22 the configuration is either xooooxo or oxoooox. In AE4 is the conserved energy of 9.1 units now supplying empty new x's. Now the process where the probability of the x’s staying in place or moving such that they are still in the same entropy level begins (and information in the universe begins). Since the probability is 50%, the drainage AE4 to AE3 on the average would be 50% of .4 and 50% of .6 which equals .5 energy units drained each second.
The AE4 drains away to AE3 (except for .1 unit) in 8 seconds and the total time 9 seconds, and at that time the universe is in entropy level 3 (either ooxooox, or oxoooxo, or xoooxoo). The statistical entropy is at .28, which is higher than .14 or .22. AE3 drains to AE2 similarly in 9 seconds total so the universe is in entropy 2 level, the configuration of oooxoox, or ooxooxo, or oxooxoo, or xooxooo with 9.1 AE2 energy units. AE2 drains to AE1 in 9 seconds total, AE1 drains to AE0 in 9 seconds total and the universe is done with its job of maximizing the entropy given the structure of the universe. Its statistical entropy is .36, and it is in one of six configurations: xxooooo, oxxoooo, ooxxooo, oooxxoo, ooooxxo, or oooooxx the configurations endlessly cycling with each new second. The simple model universe has finished its job of eliminating uniqueness and structure to the best of it ability. It reached the highest entropy level in 47 seconds.
In the actual universe, the energy at creation was more in the order of 9.1x10exp10exp300,000,000,000units. A lot of time is not near a big enough description for the time the model would need to reach the highest entropy level given that amount of start energy. Two alterations are proposed to make the simple entropy universe model more closely resemble the actual entropy as it acts in the actual universe, and to make useful energy dissipate faster in the model so large universe start energies do not clog down the model.
First: to more closely make the above simple model of the universe like the real universe the first step in the model is best altered in the first 11 seconds. The beginning of the actual universe, the big bang, had a short time termed inflation immediately following the big bang. The period of inflation was a period of much different energy rules and physical laws than the laws of the universe are now and have been once the inflation period was over. No matter what the energy at the start of the model universe is, even a large number of 9.1x10exp10exp300,000,000,000 AE5 units, to account for the inflation after the big bang, the model can be made with temporary rules to progress from the entropy level AE5 to AE4 in 11 seconds. After the first 11 seconds, the rules of the simple model universe would revert to valid.
Second: the simple model universe can also be made to describe better the actual universe if an allowance is made for the closed system described in the model to propagate new closed systems within the original closed system, and any of those propagated closed systems is allowed to propagate new closed systems inside themselves. The allowance could be that at as any part “x” movement a new seven space system is allowed to proliferate from one of the “o” spaces and making an energy allowance for the proliferation.
This is also the actual universe’s strategy to use its energy faster so its flight upwards in entropy is done faster. Zillions of proliferating closed entropy systems are what make up the structure seen in the universe. This proliferation of zillions of ultimately interconnected yet effectively independent new closed configurations in the actual universe is due to the big amount of energy at the universe’s creation and the universe wanting to reach the highest level of entropy fast. For example a volcano on a distant planet erupts and causes a cone solid that is higher than any other cone solid on the planet. Entropy now has work to do with useable energy - reducing the cone solid eventually so it is not unusual.
But even with the building of structures such as suns and planets, the actual universe still had too much energy and as much as the universe wants entropy higher, it also cares entropy proceed quickly. In response the universe made life organization configurations such as DNA molecule configurations so more proliferation of uniqueness and structure would create more opportunities to reach its end game of highest entropy. So when a human infant is born or a cell becomes alive, the universe sees in that more complexity that helps reduce the time to when entropy in the universe reaches end game stalemate.
V. Dark Matter Enabling Life
It is important to establish a simple definition of life. A proposed definition is that unlike non-life, life has the ability or latent ability to navigate against the universe's physical laws. For example a dead leaf (non-life) in a stream doesn't navigate but is moved by the universe's physical laws downstream, while a fish (life) swims upstream. An example of latent ability to navigate is a seed that is germinated a thousand years after its release from a plant. Life’s ability to sense is essential to navigation, but the proposed definition for life excludes any ability of life other than navigation.
In the entropy section, a fairly big claim is made. Namely, without a god the universe on its own because of entropy and the enormous energy at the big bang would create suns, planets, and life organization for the purpose of winding down its enormous start energy. In other words, entropy in the universe is responsible for the original molecule configurations able to function as life.
However there is still an element missing for life to be unlike non-life. The missing element enabling life for the available molecule configurations is conjectured to be Dark Matter. Dark Matter exists in most galaxies as a halo of matter spread equally throughout the galaxy. With or without the conjecture, Dark Matter while not experimentally identified at the particle level, is critical to galaxies. Without Dark Matter most galaxies do not have enough mass to develop.
The conjecture is the energy from Dark Matter permeates molecule configurations thereby activating life in the molecule configuration. The energy of Dark Matter is assumed to be at the universe’s least useable (in the entropy scale) level of energy existing in the universe. In a cell, multiple Dark Matter energy units permeate the molecule configurations needed for the cell to function, starting in the DNA and RNA continuing to whatever else needs to be simultaneously permeated so the cell functions. The cell does not need one extra energy unit so it is “an entity.” It follows in logic that complex life such as humans do not need one extra energy unit that is termed the human soul or life force.
In an obscure way, life energy is “reincarnated” when the Dark Matter energy units are uncoupled with life when the biology degrades to non-functional and the same Dark Matter energy in the future permeates a new molecule configuration. Dark Matter is assumed to be the left over most unusable energy in the entropy mechanics of reducing energy usefulness. As such it carries hidden information only. So the reincarnation is meaningless. The energy came from an abyss and winds up in the same abyss. There is no afterlife of a heaven or hell and quite the opposite, each life has one and only one life to life and it is the one familiar and common to all life, the one and only life that exists for each one living entity in the universe. At death the validation of each life is left behind in the universe but life disappears.
VI. Universe Creation Without God
A claim of the Odd Average Atheist Bible here stated is the universe is a result of nothing in time absent non-existent two dimensional space perturbing itself. A creator is not needed to create nothing. The behavior of nothing has no rules so it perturbing itself is valid. The claim is the universe was made to exist by nothing without a creator, without a god. Claiming the universe creation is a result of nothing is a better more modern myth than the one of god creating the universe. The god myth is scientifically inconsistent with the known universe. A universe with its genesis in nothing is much more consistent with scientific knowledge.
For all the things humans cannot fathom, space not existing somewhere timeless is difficult to fathom. Intelligent thought assumes time exists. But there is a concept of timeless non-existent space. The concept here constrained to non-existent two dimensional space, a non-existent plane. In this fathoming the timeless non-existent plane is what is termed infinitely thin, with nothing being contained within the plane. Note: any nothing in timeless three dimensional non-existent space (for instance and specifically the “space” contained in the black holes of the universe) has no meaning related to universe creation as the only actual nothing is constrained as described. There cannot be multiple nothings, there is only one actual nothing.
The universe is created when nothing within the non-existent plane perturbs itself. The perturbation is not intelligent but mechanical. As an example of a perturbation is nothing matching better its infinite thinness with that of the non-existent plane where nothing resides. When it (the nothing in a timeless non-existent plane space) perturbs itself, a universe is created with time, three dimensional space, energy, physical laws, and entropy. This is so because a perturbation is an event, and time is needed to have events. As nothing exists in timeless non-existent plane space the perturbation is impossible to express where nothing resides, so it is expressed by a universe being created. The universe blinks into existence to express the beginning of perturbation and blinks out when the perturbation expression needs to end.
The universe ends “when” (note saying “when” implies the universe cares about time and events moving quickly as the section of entropy and the simple model universe assumes) a certain entropy configuration in the space/time/matter/energy universe is met. The universe at that point in time de-inflates and disappears with no trace. Time in the universe ends, space is nullified and disappears. Nothing is back to nothing in timeless non-existent two dimensional space. The perturbation accomplishes nothing. There is no compelling reason the configuration when the universe blinks out of existence needs to be at the highest entropy. The universe could blink out tomorrow. The universe could blink out as the reader begins the next sentence.
The logic of the universe end being simply: since the universe blinked into existence (due to nothing perturbing itself in timeless non-existent two dimensional space), it must blink out of existence. Make no mistake, when the universe blinks out, time ends and space disappears. There it is, one universe with a beginning and end with life existing without a god, heaven or hell.
If nothing ever perturbs itself again, a new universe is blinked in and blinked out with entropy in place to ensure the universe has a path to blink out. Because any new universe would be indeterminate in nature if life exists, no reliving the same life from an old universe is possible.
In the matter universe (born out of nothing in timeless non-existent plane space), at the atomic level, antimatter is detectable in minute amounts. There is therefore some mirror antimatter universe born coincidently with the matter universe. The antimatter universe has in theory many opposites in physical laws (such as gravity), in the nature of energy (the anti-matter universe having “anti-energy” equal to the matter universe’s energy) and “reverse entropy.“ Therefore in theory life entities in the matter universe would not have co-identities in the antimatter universe. In all likelihood the mirror universe of anti-matter is bundled up without much activity.
The role of the anti-matter mirror universe is apparent at the time when the universe itself de-inflates and blinks out. The anti-matter and anti-energy cancel out matter and energy in the deflation. The result being nothing. Nothing perturbed itself for nothing and returns to nothing.
The nothing that is the nub of universe creation is not to be confused with Plato’s concepts of Ideal Forms and Ideas. The one unique only thing that can exist without time is exactly nothing. This is contrary to the Plato concepts.
VII. Meaning of Universe & Human Ethics
The three stages of the universe of nothing, then something, then nothing mirror the three stages of life. For each life entity, the entity doesn’t exist, then it exists as a life entity, then the life entity doesn’t exist (death). With entropy working universe-wide at every zillionth of a second, the meaning of the life is centered on life’s response to entropy. A positive response (right, good) is to proliferate (intelligently for humans) and create order, structure, and uniqueness( in control not obsessively to the point where the creating evilly destroys for humans).
Good in the universe without a god has meaning. The universe values all life, more complex life is valued more than simple life. The universe also values uniquely man-made and natural structures (natural beauty). Generically the universe values order, structure, and uniqueness. It values these entities because it has too much disordering energy and not enough order to use the energy.
Life, all life, navigates or has the latent ability to navigate. Each life, for all life entities, as an analogy is a fate funnel. Each life entity is born at the top of a unique funnel and dies at the bottom. The life entity struggles to stay away from the bottom of the funnel. Note: if life did not exist, then fate would not exist and the whole universe would be very much deterministic. As is it with fate funnels for life entities and the interaction of fate with fate, life is not deterministic particularly for more complex life forms. Human newborn infants dying naturally or unnaturally are born onto a slippery part of the top of the fate funnel and slip down to death without a chance to navigate and validate themselves little more than they existed.
The second essence of each life is: Each life entity past, present and future (humans being a miniscule percentage) validates it existed. Philosophy and religion in general focus on thought and action of adults and to a lesser extent children. No focus is on lower forms of life and applying the precepts of philosophy or religion to infants is elusive. In fact, the actual meaning of life is rooted in that each life validates that it existed.
The vast majority of humans have the opportunity to navigate the inside of their fate funnels into adulthood. At any moment a slippery spot in any life’s fate funnel that becomes the equivalent of a fate oil slick can bring death, death being the plummet through the funnel bottom. Generally, in navigating the funnel there are slightly slippery spots (mostly that bad things happen from an individual‘s perspective), and some hand hold and foot hold protrusions (where by holding on or climbing upwards or laterally can bring successful rewards).
The point is that life navigating in the universe is not determinate, that life can act indeterminately (what humans term free will) constrained by the environment only. Note: on Earth, humans are the only thinking/thought contemplating life entities. Animals cannot think. The reason being thought requires complex language (not behavioral sounds animals have). The complex language must have (and the species have the understanding of) all forms of “myself.” Still fate funnels of life at all levels of life complexity ensure the indeterminate nature of living in the universe.
With language, self-formulating thought is first possible and then unavoidable. With free flowing churning self-formulating thinking, there is a need beginning in small communities for consensus on: “Always allowed behavior” or good, and “Always not allowed behavior” or evil. The need for consensus is the same for larger communities, cities, nation states, civilizations and the world.
The number one ethical violation in the human race today is lying, and probably has always been. Lying causes 99% of other ethical violations to be secreted and allowed. Murder, unnecessary war, theft, adultery/rape, and plenty more moral wrongs - if lying was 100% unacceptable among humans immorality would all basically be reduced to isolated cases. No lie is ethical. There are philosophical arguments for the sake of argument that claim some lies are ethical. That is the equivalent of allowing all humans to lie at any time. Once lying is in place prevalently in a culture or civilization, much time is spent by the individuals formulating contingency lies (if a future event happens what lie can be told so behavior can be hidden or justified). Formulating contingency lies wastes a lot of thinking time and reinforces to the self and those around the self that lying is acceptable.
Deception, animal instinct deception, seems to be the trait humans inherit that leads to the desire to lie. Being human, however, means being able to rise above animal instincts. Particularly, humans in civilized societies rise above animal instincts when these instincts cause blatant injury without cause or gross disarray or gross unfairness. This is part of thinking and being in a civilized community. Lying should be the number one wrong (not lying should be the 1st commandment) in any religious or philosophical teaching. Ergo, the number one creed of the atheist is lying is the number one ethical wrong. The reason being, lying in the end is the number one wrong.
Freud said each human life faced three enemies: the body which deteriorates with age and is somewhat prone to disease and sickness, nature, and other human beings. He was proud humans in civilized societies over time used their intelligence, cooperation, and work to make disease/aging and nature less threatening as enemies. He lamented long and loud that not much progress is made in hostility in human relations and that any individual is subjected to a variety of aggressions by fellow human beings, even ones in the same community. If lying was eliminated between humans much positive progress in human relations is likely.
The mind of each individual human, with its self-formulating thoughts, is also able to lie to itself about what is the truth. It is critical in concert with truth telling between humans that individuals check themselves with introspection periodically for any defects in their own thinking as it relates to the truth.
In civilizations and cultures and groups and within each individual, exact harmony or near-exact harmony is worse than an elusive inexact harmony. The ultimate ethical good is an elusive inexact harmony. The inexactness that is desirable is always heavily weighted with harmony and the disharmony lightly weighted. Very generally then, harmony is the good and disharmony the evil. However in general also, a lack of disharmony is more evil than a small amount of disharmony. Exact harmony and the effort to achieve it are opposite the harmony required to see the need for change and allow change.
Another chronic problem of humans at the individual level up to the civilization level is the confusion of good meaning people between: “Us against Them,” and “Us against Us.” To bravely identify evil and label evil as Them is necessary for good to eliminate evil or subdue evil to a minimum. As Plato argued, the good has a clear advantage as it only seeks to eliminate evil and can be at peace with other good, whereas evil seeks to eliminate all including allies.
Civilizations and individuals need to be more responsible to not fracture good meaning people into enemies. The advantage of the good is lost and the battle of good and evil where the good is victorious becomes harder for the good meaning people. “Us against Us” among good meaning people causes the fractures.
Plato is often misunderstood in the famous Plato Cave analogy. The idea is the hoi-polloi of any civilized society (Plato had no time or place for uncivilized tribal societies or lazy vulgar cliques, harmless or harmful) are “stuck” in a cave. It is only the serious un-lazy knowledge seeker that may find the path out to where the full sunlight of knowledge becomes available. Plenty of Christians/Faith in God thinkers for the last 2000 years have misinterpreted the sunlight as God and Jesus. Others, even philosophers have come up with many mystical mythical supernatural internal peace misinterpretations.
What Plato was really trying to describe was the knowledge humans now have, for example, about: atoms, the speed of light, wave theory, heat energy, calculus, gravity, uncertainty physics, and making computers so large calculations are completed quickly. Humanity has all the knowledge needed to navigate ethically, humanity needs no more to proceed fully informed. Presently, people now out in the Plato’s sunlight have gathered and are gathering the knowledge Plato was referring to, the facts of the underlying workings of the universe and resultant human surroundings. If Plato because of the lack of knowledge dreamed of an energy that was magic in its ability, he was wrong.
The more important overlooked part of the analogy is the hoi-polloi in the cave. One might expect a scene of half melee; half socializing society would be what Plato described. No, what he described, and has been true for the last 2500 years, of the cave scene inside is as follows.
As far as can be seen people in the cave are strapped into chairs so they are only able to see in front of them and side to side. Some are truly strapped in but others it can be seen have re-strapped themselves. In front of them is a non-stop entertaining shadow show. People in the cave have been there so long that the people in the chairs see the shadows as the reality they live in as do the people they can talk and shout to. Behind they majority are a lot of showmen with many lights and props to make the shadow show. This is reality to the hoi-polloi, being influences by reflections of reality, ignorant of real knowledge and advanced thinking - they have no knowledge to contradict their perception of the world. The fake entertainment is their reality and basis for approaching life.
A brave few think up breaking free of the straps and when they do break free they see that what the hoi-polloi thinks is reality is just a light and prop show. Believe it or not, when the brave few return so as to "free" the people they find not many want to leave the fun of the non-stop entertainment. Some brave ones give up trying to convince the others and re-strap themselves, but some remain un-strapped and some new brave ones join them.
A few un-lazy persistent people find that there is a streak of actual sunlight visible from where the props and lights are and has a path. It is not an easy path, but some make it out of the cave and into the sunlight where the universe reveals its underlying nature. It is a repeat when the brave few return to the hoi-polloi, hardly anyone wants to un-strap themselves from the non-stop less than real entertainment. Plato would counter that many an average ethically good human is pleasured more by finding real knowledge than false knowledge so they should gladly do the work to un-strap themselves and climb best they can toward real knowledge. With real knowledge real exploring and better building of structure also bring pleasure which cannot be had without real knowledge. But Plato’s argument assumes the average hoi-polloi person values the pleasure of real knowledge more than the non-reality non-stop entertainment. The cave analogy of Plato is valuable to modern civilizations given the sunlight is not misinterpreted as a god or something with magical powers.
A short synopsis of Plato's Republic is that people of the ethically good type can choose and change (upwards with difficulty, denigrating with less difficulty) mindset types. In denigrating order the mindsets are:
- the general in charge is the general of doing right/ethical/good (the philosopher king mindset),
- the general in charge is the general of strength that values glory of victory and is ambitious for power (the timocratic/warrior mindset),
- the general in charge is the general of obtaining money and material goods (the oligarchic mindset)
- the general in charge is the general of freedom of expression, finding pleasure and avoiding discomfort (the democratic mindset)
- no general is in charge, the generals are subordinate to a tyrant that values praise, comfort, and control (the tyrant mindset)
All humans have all generals within their thoughts. Note: having the general in charge being the general in charge of doing right/ethical/good doesn't mean an absence of pleasure, money, or feelings of glory - simply that the other generals are tamed. Plato proves that, broadly, people choosing the mindset type of the general in charge being the general of doing right/ethical/good are more self-happy more often than the other mindset type people and particularly as they become older adults.
The mindset types and the ordering of them in denigrating order was a method employed by Plato 2500 years ago. Still even in modern civilization, the most preferable mindset for civilians in a civilization still is the general in charge is the general of doing right/ethical/good. The emancipation of humans that past 2500 years has made the democratic mindset just as desirable and acceptable to the hoi-polloi. A lot of good has been achieved by the emancipation and the freedom of thinking generated by democratic mindset individuals. The danger is the denigration to the tyrant mindset type individuals. In Western Civilization, too often individuals license the freedom and otherwise distort the freedom available to them and denigrate into individuals of the tyrant mindset type.
What about the people that substitute for a general of doing right/ethical/good, a general or doing wrong/unethical/bad? What about the people who introduce a part time general that usurps the general of doing right/ethical/good whenever convenient with a general of doing wrong/unethical/bad. These are what are called evil and partly evil people.
There is a legitimate philosophical question: If a person can be in many measures better off and happier for himself by having a general of doing wrong/unethical/bad in charge or sometimes in charge, what is the compelling argument to having a general of doing right/ethical/good constantly overriding the general of doing wrong/unethical/bad? One answer is the one Plato gives which is the concept that evil is evil to all including other evil whereas good’s only enemy is evil. To be good is to be on the side which has that advantage over evil.
Another answer why good is to be chosen by the individual person over evil and un-lazy over lazy is related to how each person responds to the overall purpose of the universe. Below is a basic analysis, with persons listed first in how their lives were lived and the list repeated as how they are judged in the validation of their life with respect to what the universe values.
a. person lived minimum good, lived evil or part evil when advantageous, is honest about evil committed
b. person lived minimum good, lived evil or part evil when advantageous, lies about evil committed when convenient
c. person lived life lazy, partly good and partly evil, is honest about the laziness and evil committed
d. person lived life lazy, partly good and partly evil, lies about laziness and evil committed when convenient
e. person lived minimal evil, lived mostly ethically/good/right - is honest about evil committed
f. person lived minimal evil, lived mostly ethically/good/right - lies when convenient about evil committed
Very generically the validations each of the above are provided below - most ethical first, least ethical last. Being good with or without material gains still is much preferable to being evil without a god in the universe. This is especially the case when there is no reincarnation or afterlife, and the one life lived is the one and only life that is available to validate the life existed.
e. person has contributed the near-most they could of what the universe values and dies authentic
f. person has contributed the near-most they could of what the universe values but dies inauthentic to some extent depending on the person’s extent of lying
c. and d. persons have both not contributed their share of what the universe values, one dies authentic, the other inauthentic
b. person has done too much destroying/disharmonizing discounting what the universe values. The person is also inauthentic at death. It is this person type people point to saying: that if no one knows the lies and if no one cares how the universe values good versus evil and if the person can often die happier and more successful than the type e. and f. people, shouldn't people choose to be this type of person?
The reason not to this type person, type b. is simply each human being does have one and only one life to live. Dying inauthentic makes the overriding purpose of life, to validate itself, one in the same with validating the life as inauthentic. Another reason is that humans have a stake in valuing what the universe values and while one human life seems a nit, a zillion evil nits add up.
a. In civilized societies these people are jailed or put to death. They die authentically evil.
VIII. Human Population Chaos Danger
There is a new big ethical violation in thinking which is that humans on Earth are doing no better than a bacteria culture in a Petri dish with respect to population growth. Given humans are for the most part without other species as predators on Earth, have done a great job managing natural threats, and a great job managing body disease, humans are very much like a culture in a Petri dish of agar. The only way humans can avoid the fate of the culture (growing itself to near extinction, then if there is enough agar making furtive efforts to establish a stable population) is with human intelligence as individual beings and collectively.
In population theory they study a very simple population iteration algorithm. Normalized so the integer 1 is the maximum population, it is Y2=kxY1-kxY1xY1, where Y1 is the population at timeY1 and Y2 is the next population at timeY2, and k is a constant that is an amalgam of birth rate, death rate, and the ability of the environment to grow the population.
The equation was born out of observations that populations do not grow in a linear fashion based on previous population counts, which would have a linear iterative equation of the type Y2=kxY1, where Y2 is a future population, Y1 a previous population and k is a constant. The more accurate equation is the one given in the previous paragraph was determined by observation of actual population growth. In the equation is a negative non-linear feedback component, namely the minus kY1xY1 component. Un-normalized the population iteration algorithm, Y2=kxY1-kxY1xY1 is useless, but normalized to a maximum population of 1, the kxY1xY1 component is always less than one. If k is small enough, as Y1 grows, Y2 increases less and less until eventually population stability is reached. Subsequent increases and decreases in Y2 based on the previous population of Y1 are small. By de-normalizing Y2 (multiplying by maximum population sustainable) the stable population can be calculated. As the time interval between Y1 and Y2 is not part of the iteration algorithm, population theorists choose what they think are legitimate regular time intervals (for example: each hour for bacteria, each year for fish in pond, and each century for humans). The idea is to choose calculating intervals that are always greater than the life cycle of the population under study yet short enough to make the study relevant.
The branch of chaos mathematics within the study of mathematics explores conditions of differential non-linear equations sensitive to initial condition variances and non-linear feedback process equations. Both these equation categories are prone to going into partial and total chaos. In partial chaos what appears chaotic actually has patterns to the chaos which is of particular interest to mathematicians.
The feedback iteration algorithm Y2=kxY1-kxY1xY1 is one such equation that is prone to chaos. The algorithm predated chaos mathematics, and before chaos mathematics scientists and mathematicians considered the outcomes when k was large useless and undecipherable. When k is large, greater than 4, as successive Y1, Y2, Y3, Y4, etc. are calculated to predict population size at the time points based on the chosen time interval, eventually Yn based on the previous Y is "anywhere random" between 0 and 1.
What the chaos mathematicians found with enough calculation was the algorithm Y2=kxY1-kxY1xY1 (as it is iterated and iterated) actually goes into total chaos without pattern when k is greater than 3.57. Lowering k below 3.57 causes partial chaos that is patterned until k is lowered to below 3 where the population stabilizes with no chaos.
The population of humans is subject to the mathematics of the equation. In the population algorithm, if k is less than 3 the stable population becomes Yn=(k-1)/k. Assume the human population's k is 2.9, and assume the maximum sustainable population of humans on Earth is 10 billion people, then the stable population after many centuries (the time interval chosen for iteration being one century) would be 6.5 billion people. That is basically it. If humans cannot make, with human intelligence, k less than 3 - then human population will go into chaos in the future. Additionally, k being made less than 3 implies the human community be not allowed to try and find stability in human population greater than 6.5 billion people. As illogical as it may sound due to the premise of the maximum sustainability is 10 billion people on Earth, the maximum stable human population on Earth given the assumptions above is 6.5 billion people - not 10 billion, not 9 billion, but 6.5 billion people.
It would be hard for humanity to micromanage k up and down generation to generation. A more sensible approach is to enact controls that keep the human population k always below chaos causing levels. Here is an example of k being too large given the present human population. At k=3.2 the iterations result in patterned chaos, bifurcating to two populations (also called attractors in chaos theory): 5 billion and 8 billion. Still, that is not favorable to harmony in the human community. In 2200 the human population could be at 10 billion, then in 2300 the human population could be at 5 billion and by 2400 grow to 8 billion and then in 2500 back down to 5 billion. How is it 5 or even 3 billion human beings net are dead from one century to the next? Will civilization deteriorate into barbaric tribes? Without civilization, a new dark ages that may last on and one may result. At k=3.5 there are four bifurcations/attractors: approximately from century to century, 4.5 billion, 5.3 billion, 7.8 billion and 8.6 billion happening randomly.
Here is a rudimentary examination of the actual human population k based on historical population data. Between 1800 and 1900 k was 1.98; between 1900 and 2000 k was 4.60. Averaging the two, k=3.29 based on humanity’s overall activities the last two hundred years. This is dangerous for humanity if not reversed. Having humanity’s k at 3.29 and the current population of 6 billion people it means forever after, unless now or in the near future active measures are taken by the human community as a whole to bring k down below 3, the human population will not stabilize, but be chaotic from century to century. Humans in the Petri dish called Earth are at the precept, the tipping point, from having the population growing nicely (the last ten centuries for example) changing into population growth chaos.
The constant k doesn't include outside influence such as an asteroid impact - it is in an equation that assumes the population is in its present environment. What is particularly disturbing is the human capacity for making its k high increased from the 1800-1900 period to the 1900 to 2000. If it were reversed so k=4.60 for 1800-1900 and k=1.98 for 1900-2000 then most likely humans by control/intelligence or by lack of capacity were stabilizing the population. It is not as if k is going to go down if the tipping point is reached and from one century to another the population is decimated by 5 billion net humans. k is an inert ability number. No, if the trend for k is indicative, humanity's inert k is greater than 3.2 (3.2 is the start of chaos) and can only be changed with application of human intelligence.
Humans in civilization communities can reduce k with world-wide birth control, and in isolating and letting die off all societies that are tribal governed and refuse to join the civilized human communities. To stall for time and not have chaos triggered by nuclear war, nuclear weapons need to be dismantled and outlawed world-wide.
Bottom Line: the civilized world will go into century to century population chaos unless the population is stabilized by agreement to 6.5 billion people century to century with no substantial growth. The civilized world will have to control humanity’s inert k in the algorithm Y2=kxY1-kxY1xY1, so k is about 2.9 maximum.
IX. Basic Physical Laws of the Universe
1. In physics there are three important laws of the universe. One - The maximum speed in the universe is the speed of light. Two - Mass attracts mass with a force equal to MxmxG/DxD. Three - No matter can have both position and velocity precisely determined in space better than MxsdPositionxsdVelocity>h.
2. Light is legitimately considered both as a wave phenomenon and as a particle. Light (including radio waves) is both a mass-less Electro Magnetic Wave and a particle with mass. The EM wave equations fit well into the Newtonian and Einstein physics. If experiments are done with high intensity light, light behaves like a wave. However if dim light is used, light behaves as photon particle. And the behavior is not suited to Newtonian or Einstein physics. The motion of the particles are not certain and are only bounded by statistical probability functions. Over time the statistics work out that the wave properties are reality along with photon properties.
3. The mere fact a particle moves measurably indeterminately (the photon experiment in dim light is easy to verify), is incompatible with Newton and Einstein motion equations. Those motion equations are deterministic meaning given initial conditions future motion is bound by the equations. Also, the Newton and Einstein equations theoretically and experimentally work in reverse. The concept of reversibility is called symmetry and without symmetry in the physical laws of the universe, the concept of energy conservation is invalid.
4. Quantum physics (including the physics of photons not traveling in determined motion, but bound by probability theory) either is a subset of Newton and Einstein physics, or Newton and Einstein physics are sub-physics of Quantum physics. Which is the subset is unknown but what is known is the deepest laws of nature are partly unpredictable. More about the photon - in mathematics the photon only returns to its source if its position at time of reversal is unobserved. If it is observed in any way (say measuring where it is located on a phosphorus screen) the physics’ equations have the photon returning on an indeterminate path. Conservation of energy and information depend on a universe with symmetry so it is critical that quantum physics have reversibility when unobserved.
5. In 1927, a new law of the universe was discovered. No matter existing in the universe can have both its position and its velocity (speed and direction) measured precisely at any instant. In fact, efforts to measure position more precisely, cause its velocity (as measured) to be imprecise by the amount of more precision used to measure position. It is the Uncertainty Principle of Quantum physics. The equation that governs the universe is MxsdPositionxsdVelocity is always greater (can never measure better) than h. Where sdPosition is the standard deviation of position measurements and sdVelocity the standard deviation of Velocity measurements, h is plank's constant, and M is the mass of the matter. Since h is very tiny and the matter humans handle is large, humans can measure day to day both position and speed very accurately. Plank's constant is 6.62x10exp-34. Humans do not day to day care about 10exp-34 meters accuracy. However, a photon's mass of blue light is about 7.3x10exp-54 gram so there is plenty of unknown in velocity direction and position of a photon mass of blue light at any instant. The pictorial depiction of electrons as a cloud around the proton and neutron nucleus of an atom is due to the uncertainty of the electron’s position and velocity.
6. All energy comes in quantum or discrete quantities that are readily apparent in transistor oscillator environments but are not apparent in the large systems with which humans normally interact. The energy required to spin a large grinding wheel faster increasing its frequency of rotation, when plotted graphically and calculated mathematically, appears to be a smooth analog curve and mathematical process where x more energy produces (no matter how small x) a corresponding increase in the frequency of the wheel rotation. The analog appearance is only in appearance, quantum physics determined that all energy in the universe is increased or decreased be quantum or discrete quantities that look analog in large systems. The discrete steps in energy are governed by the equation, energy(in discrete steps)=hxf, where f is the frequency in the system, and h is Plank’s constant. This was a big surprise to scientists because quantum energy steps mean a small increase in energy is ignored until the increase is large enough then the system jumps instanteously to a new state. This is opposite of an analog universe which all calculus (for example) is predicated. Calculus is unaffected as the quantum nature of the universe is only apparent in small systems such as in transistor oscillators where the frequency is very high.
7. Quantum physics and an aggregate called Quantum Field Theory are integral for the design of transistor circuitry. Quantum Field Theory is also involved with diagrams depicting the propagation of a photon as an electron moves one quantum energy level down in an atom (the basic light propagator in the universe), and in identifying what matter went where after huge energy particle collisions in particle accelerators.
X. Black Holes and Dark Energy
Recently, even as Dark Matter is not yet identified at the particle scale, another surprise in the universe was found by scientists. The surprise was labeled Dark Energy. Distant space and the matter it contains is increasing its acceleration away from Earth, which is a surprise because with useful energy dissipating in the universe there should be a decrease in acceleration.
One possible explanation of Dark Energy is that Earth and the Solar system are approaching a black hole. The possibility is based on the following information known about black holes and their basic properties.
1. A black hole has at its center a mass infinitely dense (a point mass), timeless non-existent three dimensional space inside the spherical event horizon, and the spherical event horizon itself. The radius of a black hole is from the point mass to the event horizon.
2. Einstein worked out that gravity and acceleration are equivalent. It is called the equivalence principle. The thought experiment Einstein used was an elevator floating in free space. In the elevator were people free floating, people bolted upright on the floor, and a light beam shining horizontally from a flash light attached to one wall so the light terminated on the opposite wall. On the bottom of the elevator are rockets. If the rockets are fired so the acceleration is instantly 32ft/sxs (the same as gravity of Earth), then the free floating people see the floor approach the same as free falling toward Earth, the people on the floor feel the same weight as on Earth. So gravity and acceleration are equivalent in the classic physics sense.
Einstein was interested that there was equivalence because he was interested in how gravity interacted with light. The light in the elevator bends when the acceleration is applied because it has speed and takes time to reach the opposite wall. When a constant acceleration is applied the light in the elevator terminates on the opposite wall slightly lower than the horizontal point. If the opposite wall is moved further away the point on the wall moves lower and in fact has the familiar parabolic path of objects thrown upward from Earth. As gravity and acceleration are equivalent that means gravity bends light. Light is not uninfluenced by gravity.
3. Gravity, the force associated with mass, also affects time much like particles approaching the speed of light. Time slows down for matter in the presence of mass. For example the molecules on the Sun move slightly slower than on Earth because of the greater mass. If gravity comes from a very large radius black hole where the horizon appears flat when close to the sphere, gravity (even massive gravity) does not have any effect on mass and space, the single effect is slowing of time. Any mass and masses nearby approaching a black hole horizon that is flat would be in free fall with no evidence other than the slowing of time. This is unlike the effect of mass increasing and geometry stretching associated with objects in calculations having the object approaching the speed of light. If the black hole radius is smaller, tidal forces effect mass and masses nearby slightly different and some evidence other than time slowing down may become apparent.
4. Newton's Gravity Law of force between two spherical masses is F=MxmxG/DxD. M and m being the mass of the two masses, D the distance between them and G a constant of 6.7x10exp-11. Using calculus, the escape velocity of any object or particle from a sphere of mass M and radius R, is EV = (2xMxG/R)exp-1/2.
5. Even considering light as weightless electromagnetic waves, light still is bound by speed. In the escape velocity equation for a sphere, if M is large enough or R is small enough the escape velocity is greater than the speed of light. That is the definition of a black hole, that nothing can escape a black hole’s gravitational force once beyond the event horizon not even light traveling at the speed of light. The equation for any developed black hole's radius is R=2MG/CxC where C is the speed of light. Note: objects not very close to a black hole that are traveling fast enough in a direction away from the black hole are not captured by the black hole. Not all objects or light are captured by any one black hole as all objects and light in the universe have velocities and the velocities are not all halted and reversed by the black hole.
The reason the sphere of a black hole with the radius set where the escape velocity is greater than the speed of light is called the event horizon is it is at this crossing that time stops. Time slows down for matter if there is object mass that is increasing in mass in the space occupied by the matter. When and where the influence of the object mass is great enough to trap light, at the point where light is hemmed in, time slows down to a stop. There are no events past the event horizon of black holes as events are defined in time only. Time ends for any matter at or beyond a black hole event horizon.
This is the physics supporting the possibility Dark Energy could be the result of not the universe accelerating away from Earth but the result of the solar system approaching a black hole. If in the whole solar system, time is being slowed because of the nearness of a black hole, then the remainder of the universe would look unusually speedy in all respects. If the possible black hole’s radius is large, the solar system would be in free-fall and the slowing of time the only evidence of the phenomenon. If the possible black hole’s radius is small, then tidal forces may have a tiny effect on the orbit paths of the planets around the Sun.
XI. Individuals and Death
The conjecture previously stated is that each living single cell life is catalyzed by the permeation of enough component energy from Dark Matter. No unifying energy is needed, just the component parts having life is the totality of life. Contrary to Plato, this implies life as complex as humans do not have a unifying energy commonly referred to as a soul or life energy identified uniquely to each human and destined for an afterlife existence elsewhere (the heaven and hell concepts) or for reincarnation.
Plato argued since there was pre-knowledge of sensing and knowing innately more from less, a human soul existed. With knowledge learned since Plato the pre-knowledge of sensing is wholly attributable to evolution. So Plato’s argument is invalid.
Individuality in self-awareness and resultant necessity for morals and ethics in humans is better described by Freud. Ego is very much the near whole of each human’s personality. Each mature or maturing human is self-aware the personality as a total whole is the self as understood by the self and is unique as much as all life is unique and all validations of life unique. Morality resides in the super-ego which forms at early maturation of the individual. The theory is the ego forms the super-ego out of part of the ego as a defense that guards the ego’s desires and activities allowing the individual to conform in some way to the consensus morality of civilization. One note: a tangent of Freud’s thinking is shedding repressions and/or inhibitions is considered insightful. This is not always the case and is often confused by individuals that all thoughts need to be expressed. All individuals perform “thought triage” where thoughts that are useless or harmful are throw away, thoughts that may be useful are stored, and thoughts that require immediate attention are attended to. It is morally and productively important useless or harmful thoughts be thrown away.
Morality as a scientific matter is being explored in human brain studies. The studies show a connection in brain areas that control the tasks of actual physical navigating with the tasks of moral decision making. Navigation or latent ability for navigation is a critical commonality of life. Human ethics and morals both in thinking and activities have in common navigation employed by or ready to be employed by all life entities. Plato had some sense of this, Freud did not.
Life, all life, with special case exceptions, avoids death vigorously. Generally, more complex life entities avoid death with more vigor than simple life. The universe, attempting to churn away its useable energy in the ceaseless march of entropy increasing, needs life avoiding death. The situation otherwise (where life does not avoid death as a basic instinct) implies life starts but does not flourish, and that would not be useful to the universe. The universe also is unable to have life be immortal much in the same way the universe has physical laws prohibiting a perfect work engine. Also, time ends either when the universe blinks out or when matter (life matter included) reaches a black hole’s event horizon. So immortality is logically impossible because time itself can end and immortality means no end. Only nothing within time absent non-existent two dimensional space is immortal.
In the case of thinking humans, death is similar to concept of time ending. For the individual human, death is the time end very equal to the universe blinking out (time ends, space disappears). The difference being when an individual human dies, the universe still exists. The individual human being that dies leaves a unique validation in the universe that the life, with all its complexity, existed.