According to Merriam-Webster, deduction is defined as “the deriving of a conclusion by reasoning; specifically: inference in which the conclusion about particulars follows necessarily from general or universal premises.”
An example of deductive reasoning is as follows:
Premise 1: People cannot see in the dark.
Premise 2: It is dark in caves.
Conclusion: People can’t see in caves.
There’s no arguing about the above example. A person might say that someone could see if there were a torch, but we’re talking about a cave in its natural setting with no lighting. In deductive reasoning, the conclusion naturally follows the premises, period. If either of the premises is not true, then the conclusion may not be true; if the conclusion is not true, then either or both of the premises are not true.
Here’s an example of claims made by those who follow the Bible:
Premise 1: God is infallible.
Premise 2: The Bible is written by God.
Conclusion: The Bible is infallible.
We cannot prove whether God wrote the Bible, just as we cannot prove or disprove his existence. However, what we can verify for certain is whether or not the Bible is, in fact, infallible. In this case, there is no room for an opinion or “faith”. If the Bible is flawed in any way, it follows necessarily that one or both of the premises are false. Either God did not write the Bible and/or God is fallible. A person’s opinion or faith only comes into play when deciding which conclusion they are comfortable with accepting since neither premise can be verified to begin with.
Now, the next step is illustrating the ways in which the Bible is flawed. Ready? Just say “go” if you’re up for it…