On November 18, 1992, more than 1,600 scientists, including 104 Nobel laureates, from around the world endorsed a warning. Here's what they said.

WORLD SCIENTISTS' WARNING TO HUMANITY

Human beings and the natural world are on a collision
course. Human activities inflict harsh and often
irreversible damage on the environment and on critical
resources. If not checked, many of our current practices
put at serious risk the future that we wish for human
society and the plant and animal kingdoms, and may so alter
the living world that it will be unable to sustain life in
the manner that we know. Fundamental changes are urgent if
we are to avoid the collision our present course will bring
about.


THE ENVIRONMENT

The environment is suffering critical stress:

The Atmosphere

Stratospheric ozone depletion threatens us with
enhanced ultra-violet radiation at the earth's surface,
which can be damaging or lethal to many life forms. Air
pollution near ground level, and acid precipitation, are
already causing widespread injury to humans, forests and
crops.

Water Resources

Heedless exploitation of depletable ground water
supplies endangers food production and other essential
human systems. Heavy demands on the world's surface
waters have resulted in serious shortages in some 80
countries, containing 40% of the world's population.
Pollution of rivers, lakes and ground water further
limits the supply.

Oceans

Destructive pressure on the oceans is severe,
particularly in the coastal regions which produce most of
the world's food fish. The total marine catch is now at
or above the estimated maximum sustainable yield. Some
fisheries have already shown signs of collapse. Rivers
carrying heavy burdens of eroded soil into the seas also
carry industrial, municipal, agricultural, and livestock
waste -- some of it toxic

Soil

Loss of soil productivity, which is causing extensive
Land abandonment, is a widespread byproduct of current
practices in agriculture and animal husbandry. Since
1945, 11% of the earth's vegetated surface has been
degraded -- an area larger than India and China combined
-- and per capita food production in many parts of the
world is decreasing.

Forests

Tropical rain forests, as well as tropical and
temperate dry forests, are being destroyed rapidly. At
present rates, some critical forest types will be gone in
a few years and most of the tropical rain forest will be
gone before the end of the next century. With them will
go large numbers of plant and animal species.

Living Species

The irreversible loss of species, which by 2100 may
reach one third of all species now living, is especially
serious. We are losing the potential they hold for
providing medicinal and other benefits, and the
contribution that genetic diversity of life forms gives
to the robustness of the world's biological systems and
to the astonishing beauty of the earth itself.


Much of this damage is irreversible on a scale of
centuries or permanent. Other processes appear to pose
additional threats. Increasing levels of gases in the
atmosphere from human activities, including carbon dioxide
released from fossil fuel burning and from deforestation,
may alter climate on a global scale. Predictions of global
warming are still uncertain -- with projected effects
ranging from tolerable to very severe -- but the potential
risks are very great.

Our massive tampering with the world's interdependent web
of life -- coupled with the environmental damage inflicted
by deforestation, species loss, and climate change -- could
trigger widespread adverse effects, including unpredictable
collapses of critical biological systems whose interactions
and dynamics we only imperfectly understand.

Uncertainty over the extent of these effects cannot
excuse complacency or delay in facing the threat

POPULATION

The earth is finite. Its ability to absorb wastes and
destructive effluent is finite. Its ability to provide food
and energy is finite. Its ability to provide for growing
numbers of people is finite. And we are fast approaching
many of the earth's limits. Current economic practices
which damage the environment, in both developed and
underdeveloped nations, cannot be continued without the
risk that vital global systems will be damaged beyond
repair.

Pressures resulting from unrestrained population growth
put demands on the natural world that can overwhelm any
efforts to achieve a sustainable future. If we are to halt
the destruction of our environment, we must accept limits
to that growth. A World Bank estimate indicates that world
population will not stabilize at less than 12.4 billion,
while the United Nations concludes that the eventual total
could reach 14 billion, a near tripling of today's 5.4
billion. But, even at this moment, one person in five
lives in absolute poverty without enough to eat, and one in
ten suffers serious malnutrition.

No more than one or a few decades remain before the chance
to avert the threats we now confront will be lost and the
prospects for humanity immeasurably diminished.


WARNING

We the undersigned, senior members of the world's
scientific community, hereby warn all humanity of what lies
ahead. A great change in our stewardship of the earth and
the life on it, is required, if vast human misery is to be
avoided and our global home on this planet is not to be
irretrievably mutilated.

WHAT WE MUST DO

Five inextricably linked areas must be addressed
simultaneously:

1. We must bring environmentally damaging activities under
control to restore and protect the integrity of the
earth's systems we depend on.

We must, for example, move away from fossil fuels to
more benign, inexhaustible energy sources to cut
greenhouse gas emissions and the pollution of our air
and water. Priority must be given to the development of
energy sources matched to third world needs -- small scale
and relatively easy to implement.

We must halt deforestation, injury to and loss of
agricultural land, and the loss of terrestrial and
marine plant and animal species.

2. We must manage resources crucial to human welfare more
effectively.

We must give high priority to efficient use of energy,
water, and other materials, including expansion of
conservation and recycling.

3. We must stabilize population. This will be possible only
if all nations recognize that it requires improved
social and economic conditions, and the adoption of
effective, voluntary family planning.

4. We must reduce and eventually eliminate poverty.

5. We must ensure sexual equality, and guarantee women
control over their own reproductive decisions.


The developed nations are the largest polluters in the
world today. They must greatly reduce their
overconsumption, if we are to reduce pressures on resources
and the global environment. The developed nations have the
obligation to provide aid and support to developing
nations, because only the developed nations have the
financial resources and the technical skills for these
tasks.

Acting on this recognition is not altruism, but
enlightened self-interest: whether industrialized or not,
we all have but one lifeboat. No nation can escape from
injury when global biological systems are damaged. No
nation can escape from conflicts over increasingly scarce
resources. In addition, environmental and economic
instabilities will cause mass migrations with incalculable
consequences for developed and undeveloped nations alike.

Developing nations must realize that environmental damage
is one of the gravest threats they face, and that attempts
to blunt it will be overwhelmed if their populations go
unchecked. The greatest peril is to become trapped in
spirals of environmental decline, poverty, and unrest,
leading to social, economic and environmental collapse.

Success in this global endeavor will require a great
reduction in violence and war. Resources now devoted to
the preparation and conduct of war -- amounting to over $1
trillion annually -- will be badly needed in the new tasks
and should be diverted to the new challenges.

A new ethic is required -- a new attitude towards
discharging our responsibility for caring for ourselves and
for the earth. We must recognize the earth's limited
capacity to provide for us. We must recognize its
fragility. We must no longer allow it to be ravaged. This
ethic must motivate a great movement, convince reluctant
leaders and reluctant governments and reluctant peoples
themselves to effect the needed changes.

The scientists issuing this warning hope that our message
will reach and affect people everywhere. We need the help
of many.

We require the help of the world community of scientists
-- natural, social, economic, political;

We require the help of the world's business and industrial
leaders;

We require the help of the worlds religious leaders; and

We require the help of the world's peoples.

We call on all to join us in this task.

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PROMINENT INDIVIDUALS AMONG MORE THAN 1,500 SIGNATORIES

Anatole Abragam, Physicist; Fmr. Member, Pontifical Academy
of Sciences; France
Carlos Aguirre President, Academy of Sciences, Bolivia
Walter Alvarez Geologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA
Viqar Uddin Ammad, Chemist, Pakistani & Third World
Academies, Pakistan
Claude Allegre, Geophysicist, Crafoord Prize, France
Michael Alpers Epidemiologist, Inst. of Med. Research, Papua
New Guinea
Anne Anastasi, Psychologist, National Medal of Science, USA
Philip Anderson, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA
Christian Anfinsen, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; USA
How Ghee Ang, Chemist, Third World Academy, Singapore
Werner Arber, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Switzerland
Mary Ellen Avery, Pediatrician, National Medal of Science,
USA
Julius Axelrod, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA
Michael Atiyah, Mathematician; President, Royal Society;
Great Britain
Howard Bachrach, Biochemist, National Medal of Science, USA
John Backus, Computer Scientist, National Medal of Science,
USA
Achmad Baiquni, Physicist, Indonesian & Third World
Academies, Indonesia
David Baltimore, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA
H. A. Barker, Biochemist, National Medal of Science, USA
Francisco J. Barrantes, Biophysicist, Third World Academy,
Argentina
David Bates, Physicist, Royal Irish Academy, Ireland
Alan Battersby, Chemist, Wolf Prize in Chemistry, Great
Britain
Baruj Benacerraf, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA
Georg Bednorz, Nobel laureate, Physics; Switzerland
Germot Bergold, Inst. Venezolano de Investigaciones
Cientificas, Venezuela
Sune Bergstrom, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Sweden
Daniel Bes, Physicist, Argentinean & Third World Academies,
Argentina
Hans Bethe, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA
Arthur Birch Chemist, Australian Academy of Science,
Australia
Michael Bishop, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA
Konrad Bloch, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA
Nicholaas Bloembergen, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA
David Mervyn Blow, Wolf Prize in Chemistry, Great Britain
Baruch Blumberg, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA
Bert Bolin, Meteorologist, Tyler Prize, Sweden
Norman Borlaug, Agricultural Scientist, Nobel laureate,
Peace; USA & Mexico
Frederick Bormann, Forest Ecologist; Past President,
Ecological Soc. of Amer.; USA
Raoul Bott, Mathematician, National Medal of Science, USA
Ronald Breslow, Chemist, National Medal of Science
Ricardo Bressani, Inst. of Nutrition, Guatemalan & Third
World Academies, Guatemala
Hermann Bruck, Astronomer, Pontifical Academy of Sciences,
Great Britain
Gerardo Budowski, Natural Resources, Univ. Para La Paz,
Costa Rica
E. Margaret Burbidge, Astronomer, National Medal of
Science, USA
Robert Burris, Biochemist, Wolf Prize in Agriculture, USA
Glenn Burton, Geneticist, National Medal of Science, USA
Adolph Butenandt, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Fmr.
President, Max Planck Inst.; Germany
Sergio Cabrera, Biologist, Univ. de Chile, Chile
Paulo C. Campos, Medical scientist, Philippine & Third
World Academies, Philippines
Ennio Candotti, Physicist; President, Brazilian Soc. Adv.
of Science; Brazil
Henri Cartan, Wolf Prize in Mathematics, France
Carlos Chagas, Biologist; Univ. de Rio de Janeiro; Fmr.
President, Pontifical Academy of Sciences; Brazil
Sivaramakrishna Chandrasekhar, Center for Liquid Crystal
Research, India
Georges Charpak, Nobel laureate, Physics; France
Joseph Chatt, Wolf Prize in Chemistry, Great Britain
Shiing-Shen Chern, Wolf Prize in Mathematics, China & USA
Christopher Chetsanga, Biochemist, Affican & Third World
Academies, Zimbabwe
Morris Cohen, Engineering, National Medal of Science, USA
Stanley Cohen, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA
Stanley N. Cohen, Geneticist, Wolf Prize in Medicine, USA
Mildred Cohn, Biochemist, National Medal of Science, USA
E. J. Corey, Nobel laureate, Chemistry, USA
John Cornforth, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Great Britain
Hector Croxatto, Physiologist, Pontifical & Third World
Academies, Chile
Paul Crutzen, Chemist, Tyler Prize, Germany
Partha Dasgupta, Economist, Royal Society, Great Britain
Jean Dausset, Nobel laureate, Medicine; France
Ogulande Robert Davidson, Univ. Res. & Dev. Serv., African
Acad., Sierra Leone
Margaret Davis, Ecologist, National Academy of Sciences,
USA
Luis D'Croz, Limnologist, Univ. de Panama, Panama
Gerard Debreu, Nobel laureate, Economics; USA
Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, Nobel laureate, Physics; France
Johann Deisenhofer, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Germany &
USA
Frederica de Laguna, Anthropologist, National Academy of
Sciences, USA
Paul-Yves Denis, Geographer, Academy of Sciences, Canada
Pierre Deligne, Mathematician, Crafoord Prize, France
Frank Dixon, Pathologist, Lasker Award, USA
Johanna Dobereiner, Biologist, First Sec., Brazilian
Academy of Sci.; Pontifical & Third World Academies,
Brazil
Joseph Doob, Mathematician, National Medal of Science, USA
Renato Dulbecco, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA
Heneri Dzinotyiweyi, Mathematician, African & Third World
Academies, Zimbabwe
Manfred Eigen, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Germany
Samuel Eilenberg, Wolf Prize in Mathematics, USA
Mahdi Elmandjra, Economist; Vice President, African Academy
of Sciences; Morocco
Paul Ehrlich, Biologist, Crafoord Prize, USA
Thomas Eisner, Biologist, Tyler Prize, USA
Mohammed T. El-Ashry, Environmental scientist, Third World
Academy, Egypt & USA
Gertrude Elion, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA
Aina Elvius, Astronomer, Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden
K. O. Emery, Oceanographer, National Academy of Sciences,
USA
Paul Erdos, Wolf Prize in Mathematics, Hungary
Richard Ernst, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Switzerland
Vittorio Ersparmer, Pharmacologist, Accademia Nazionale dei
Lincei, Italy
Sandra Faber, Astronomer, National Academy of Sciences, USA
Nina Federoff, Embryologist, National Academy of Sciences,
USA
Herman Feshbach, Physicist, National Medal of Science, USA
Inga Fischer-Hjalmars, Biologist, Royal Academy of
Sciences, Sweden
Michael Ellis Fisher, Physicist, Wolf Prize in Physics,
Great Britain & USA
Val Fitch, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA
Daflinn Follesdal, President, Norwegian Academy of Science;
Norway
William Fowler, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA
Otto Frankel, Geneticist, Australian Academy of Sciences,
Australia
Herbert Friedman, Wolf Prize in Physics, USA
Jerome Friedman, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA
Konstantin V. Frolov Engineer; Vice President, Russian
Academy of Sciences; Russia
Kenichi Fukui, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Japan
Madhav Gadgil, Ecologist, National Science Academy, India
Mary Gaillard, Physicist, National Academy of Sciences. USA
Carleton Gajdusek, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA
Robert Gallo, Research Scientist, Lasker Award, USA
Rodrigo Gamez ,Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Costa
Rica
Antonio Garcia-Bellido, Biologist, Univ. Auto. Madrid,
Royal Society, Spain
Leopoldo Garcia-Collin, Physicist, Latin American & Third
World Academies, Mexico
Percy Garnham, Royal Society & Pontifical Academy, Great
Britain
Richard Garwin, Physicist, National Academy of Sciences,
USA
Murray Gell-Mann, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA
Georgii Georgiev, Biologist, Lenin Prize, Russia
Humam Bishara Ghassib, Physicist, Third World Academy,
Jordan
Ricardo Giacconi, Astronomer, Wolf Prize in Physics, USA
Eleanor J. Gibson, Psychologist, National Medal of Science,
USA
Marvin Goldberger, Physicist; Fmr. President, Calif. Inst.
of Tech., USA
Maurice Goldhaber, Wolf Prize in Physics, USA
Donald Glaser, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA
Sheldon Glashow, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA
James Gowans, Wolf Prize in Medicine, France
Roger Green, Anthropologist, Royal Society, New Zealand
Peter Greenwood, Ichthyologist, Royal Society, Great
Britain
Edward Goldberg, Chemist, Tyler Prize, USA
Coluthur Gopolan, Nutrition Foundation of India, Indian &
Third World Academies, India
Stephen Jay Gould, Paleontologist, Author, Harvard Univ.,
USA
Roger Guillemin, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA
Herbert Gutowsky, Wolf Prize in Chemistry, USA
Erwin Hahn, Wolf Prize in Physics, USA
Gonzalo Halffter, Ecologist, Inst. Pol. Nac. ,Mexico
Kerstin Hall, Endocrinologist, Royal Academy of Sciences,
Sweden
Mohammed Ahmed Hamdan, Mathematician, Third World, Academy,
Jordan
Adnan Hamoui, Mathematician, Third World, Academy, Kuwait
A. M. Harun-ar Rashid, Physicist; Sec., Bangladesh, Academy
of Sci., Bangladesh
Mohammed H. A. Hassan, Physicist; Exec. Sec., Third World
Academy of Sciences; Sudan & Italy
Ahmed Hassanli, Chemist, African Academy of Sciences,
Tanzania & Kenya
Herbert Hauptman, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; USA
Stephen Hawking, Mathematician, Wolf Prize in Physics,
Great Britain
Elizabeth Hay, Biologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA
Dudley Herschbach, Nobel laureate, Chemistry, USA
Gerhard Herzberg, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Canada
Antony Hewish, Nobel laureate, Physics; Great Britain
George Hitchings, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA
Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Great
Britain
Roald Hoffman, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; USA
Robert Holley, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA
Nick Holonyak, Electrical Engineer, National Medal of
Science, USA
Lars Hormander, Wolf Prize in Mathematics, Sweden
Dorothy Horstmann, Epidemiologist, National Academy of
Sciences, USA
John Houghton, Meteorologist; Chairman, Science Working
Group, IPCC; Great Britain
Sarah Hrdy, Anthropologist, National Academy of Sciences,
USA
Kenneth Hsu, Geologist, Third World Academy, China &
Switzerland
Kun Huang, Physicist, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Hiroshi Inose, Electrical Engineer; Vice President,
Engineering Academy; Japan
Turner T. Isoun, Pathologist, African Academy of Sciences,
Nigeria Francois Jacob, Nobel laureate, Medicine; France
Carl-Olof Jacobson Zoologist; Sec-Gen., Royal Academy of
Sciences; Sweden
Dorothea Jameson, Psychologist, National Academy of
Sciences, USA
Daniel Janzen, Biologist, Crafoord Prize, USA
Cecilia Jarlskog, Physicist, Royal Academy of Sciences,
Sweden
Louise Johnson, Biophysicist, Royal Society, Great Britain
Harold Johnston, Chemist, Tyler Prize, USA
Victor A. Kabanov, Chemist, Lenin Prize in Science, Russia
Jerome Karle, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA
Robert Kates, Geographer, National Medal of Science, USA
Frederick I. B. Kayanja, Vice-Chnclr., Mbarara Univ., Third
World Academy, Uganda
Joseph Keller, Mathematician, National Medal of Science,
USA
Henry Kendall, Nobel laureate, Physics; Chairman, Union of
Concerned Scientists; USA
John Kendrew, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Great Britain
Elisabeth Kessler, Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden
Maung-U Khin, Pediatrician, Third World Academy, Myamnar &
USA
Gurdev Khush, Agronomist, International Rice Institute,
Indian Natl. Sci. Academy, India & Philippines
Susan Kieffer, Geologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA
Klaus von Klitzing, Nobel laureate, Physics; Germany
Aaron Klug, Nobel laureate, Chemistry, Great Britain
E. F. Knipling, Agricultural Researcher, National Medal of
Science, USA
Walter Kohn, Physicist, National Medal of Science, USA
Janos Kornai, Economist, Hungarian Academy of Science,
Hungary
Aderemi Kuku, Mathematician, African & Third World Acads.,
Nigeria
Ikuo Kushiro, Geologist, Japan Academy, Japan
Devendra Lal, Geophysicist, National Science Academy, India
Gerardo Lamas-Muller, Biologist, Museo de Historia Natural,
Peru
Torvard Laurent, Physiological chemist; President, Royal
Academy of Sciences; Sweden
Leon Lederman, Nobel laureate, Physics; Chr., Amer. Assn.
Adv. Sci.; USA
Sang Soo Lee, Physicist, Korean & Third World Academies,
Rep. of Korea
Yuan T. Lee, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; USA
Susan Leeman PharmacologistX National Academy of Sciences,
USA
Jean Marie Lehn, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; France
Wassily Leontief, Nobel laureate, Economics; USA
Luna Leopold, Geologist, National Medal of Science, USA
Louis Leprince-Ringuet, Physicist, French & Pontifical
Academies, France
Vladilen Letokhov, Physicist, Lenin Prize in Science,
Russia
Rita Levi-Montalcini, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA & Italy
Li Chang-lin, Environmental Sciences, Fudan University,
China
Shan Tao Liao, Mathematician, Chinese & Third World
Academies, China
William Lipscomb, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA
Jane Lubchenco, Zoologist; President-Elect, Ecological Soc.
of Amer.; USA
Christopher Magazda, Limnologist, African Academy of
Sciences, Zimbabwe
Lydia Phindile Makhubu, Chemist, Third World & African
Academies, Swaziland
Khursheed Ahmad Malik, Microbiologist, Pakistan & Third
World Academies, Pakistan & Germany
Lynn Margulis, Biologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA
Paul Marks, Oncologist, National Medal of Science, USA
George Martine, Inst. for Study of Society, Population, &
Nature; Brazil
Frederico Mayor, Biochemist; Dir. Gen., UNESCO, Spain &
France Ernst Mayr, Zoologist, National Medal of Science,
USA
Maclyn McCarty, Wolf Prize in Medicine, USA
James McConnell, Physicist, Pontifical Academy of Sciences,
Ireland
Digby McLaren, Past President, Royal Society of Canada;
Canada
James Meade, Nobel laureate, Economics; Great Britain
Jerrold Meinwald, Chemistry, Tyler Prize, USA
M. G. K Menon, Physicist; President, International Council
of Scientific Unions; India
Gennady Mesiatz, Physicist; Vice President, Russian Academy
of Sciences; Russia
Jan Michalski, Biologist, Polish Academy of Science, Poland
Hartmut Michel, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Germany
Brenda Milner, Neurologist, Academy of Sciences, Canada
Cesar Milstein, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Argentina & Great
Britain
Franco Modigliani, Nobel laureate, Economics; USA
Andrei Monin, Oceanologist, State Prize, Russia
Marcos Moshinsky, Physicist, Pontifical Academy of
Sciences, Mexico
Nevill Mott, Nobel laureate, Physics; Great Britain
Teruaki Mukaiyama, Chemist, Japan Academy, Japan
Walter Munk, Geophysicist, National Medal of Science, USA
Anne Murray, Ethnographer, Royal Academy of Sciences,
Sweden
Joseph Murray, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA
Noreen Murray, Biologist, Royal Society, Great Britain
Lawrence Mysak, Meteorologist; Vice President, Academy of
Science, Royal Society of Canada; Canada
Jayant Vishnu Narlikar, Astrophysicist, Indian & Third
World Academies, India
Anwar Nasim, Biologist, Third World Academy, Saudi Arabia
Kim Nasmyth, Biologist, Royal Society, Great Britain &
Austria
James Neel, Geneticist, National Medal of Science, USA
Louis Neel, Nobel laureate, Physics; France
Yuval Ne'eman, Physicist, Natl. Acad. of Sci. & Humanities,
Israel
Oleg M. Nefedov, Chemist; Vice President, Russian Academy
of Sciences; Russia
Erwin Neher, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Germany
Marshall Nirenberg, Biochemist; Nobel laureate, Medicine;
USA
Yasutomi Nishizuka, Biochemist, Lasker Award, Japan
John S. Nkoma, Physicist, Third World Academy, Botswana
Paul Nchoji Nkvvi, Anthropologist, African Academy,
Cameroon
Howard Odum, Ecologist, Crafoord Prize, USA
Bede Nwoye Okigbo, Agricultural Scientist; Dir., U.N. Unv.
Pgm. Natrl. Res. in Afr.; Nigeria & Kenya
Ayub Khan Ommaya, Neurobiologist, Third World Academy,
Pakistan & USA
Cyril Agodi Onwumechili, Physicist, Fmr. Pres., Nigerian
Acad. of Sciences, Nigeria & Great Britain
Mary Jane Osborn, Microbiologist, National Academy of
Scientists, USA
Yuri Ossipyan, Physicist; Vice President, Russian Academy
of Sciences; Russia
Autzr Singh Paintal, Physiologist, Fmr. President, Indian
National Science Academy, India
George Pake, Physicist, National Medal of Science, USA
George Palade, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA
Mary Lou Pardue, Biologist, National Academy of Sciences,
USA
Linus Pauling, Nobel laureate, Chemistry & Pence, USA
Barbara Pearse, Molecular Biologist, Royal Society, Great
Britain
Muhammed Abed Peerally, Biologist, Third World Academy,
Mauritius
Manuel Peimbert, Astronomer, Univ. Nac. Aut. de Mexico,
Mexico
Roger Penrose, Mathematician, Wolf Prize in Physics, Great
Britain
John Philip, Agricultural Science, Australian Academy of
Science, Australia
Lilian Pickford, Physiologist, Royal Society, Great Britain
John R. Pierce, Electrical Engineer, National Medal of
Science, USA
John Polanyi, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Canada
George Porter, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Great Britain
Ilya Prigogine, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Belgium
Giampietro Puppi, Physicist, Pontifical Academy of
Sciences, Italy
Edward Purcell, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA
Atta ur-Rahman, Chemist, Pakistani & Third World Academies,
Pakistan
G. N. Ramachandran, Mathematician, Inst. of Science, India
Tiruppattur Ramakrishnan, Physicist, Indian & Third World
Academies, India
Chintamani Rao, Inst. of Science, Indian and Pontifical
Academies, India
Eduardo Rapoport, Ecologist, Third World Academy, Argentina
Marianne Rasmuson, Geneticist, Royal Academy of Sciences,
Sweden
Peter Raven, Director, Missouri Botanical Garden; National
Academy of Sciences, USA
Martin Rees, Astronomer, Royal Society & Pontifical
Academy, Great Britain
Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatoff, Anthropologist, Columbian &
Third World Academies, Columbia
Tadeus Reichstein, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Switzerland
Frederick Reines, Physicist, National Medal of Science, USA
Alexander Rich, Biologist, National & Pontifical Academies,
USA
Burton Richter, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA
Ralph Riley, Wolf Prize in Agriculture, Great Britain
Claude Rimington, Inst. for Cancer Research, Norwegian
Academy of Science, Norway
Gustavo Rivas Mijares, Engineer; Fmr. President, Academy of
Sciences, Venezuela
Frederick Robbins, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA
Wendell Roelofs, Entomologist, National Medal of Science,
USA
Betty Roots, Zoologist, Academy of Sciences, Canada
Miriam Rothschild, Biologist, Royal Society, Great Britain
Sherwood Rowland, Chemist; President, American Association
for the Advancement of Science; USA
Janet Rowley, Physician, National Academy of Sciences, USA
Carlo Rubbia, Nobel laureate, Physics, Italy & Switzerland
Vera Rubin, Physicist, National Academy of Sciences, USA
Yuri Rudenko, Energy Research Inst., State Prize laureate,
Russia
Elizabeth Russell, Jackson Laboratory, National Academy of
Sciences, USA
Albert Sabin, Virologist, National Medal of Science, USA
Carl Sagan, Astrophysicist & Author, USA
Roald Sagdeev, Physicist, Russian & Pontifical Academies,
Russia & USA
Ruth Sager, Geneticist, National Academy of Sciences, USA
Farrokh Saidi, Surgeon, Third World Academy, Iran
Abdus Salam, Nobel laureate, Physics; President, Third
World Academy of Sciences, Pakistan & Italy
Frederick Sanger, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Great Britain
Jose Sarukhan, Biologist, Third World Academy, Mexico
Berta Scharrer,Neuroscientist, National Medal of Science,
USA
Richard Schultes, Botanist, Tyler Prize, USA
Melvin Schwartz, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA
Julian Schwinger, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA
Glenn Seaborg, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA
Michael Sela, Weizmann Inst., Pontifical Academy of
Science, Israel
Arne Semb-Johansson, Entomologist, Norwegian Academy of
Science, Norway
Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, Chemist, Pontifical & Third World
Academies, Pakistan
Kai Siegbahn, Nobel laureate, Physics; Sweden
Thomas Silou, Biochemist, African Academy of Sciences,
Congo
Herbert Simon, Nobel laureate, Economics; USA
Alexej Sitenko, Physicist, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences,
Ukraine
Jens Skou, Biophysicist, Royal Academy of Sciences,
Denmark
Charles Slack, Agricultural Science, Royal Society, New
Zealand
George Snell, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA
Roger Sperry, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA
Alexander Spirin, Biologistn Lenin Prize, Russia
Earl Stadtman, Biochemist, National Medal of Science, USA
Thressa Stadtman, Biochemist, National Academy of Sciences,
USA
Ledyard Stebbins, Geneticist, National Medal of Science,
USA
Jack Steinberger, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA &
Switzerland
Janos Szentgothai, Fmr. President, Hungarian Academy of
Sciences; Hungary
Tan Jia-zhen, Geneticist, Shanghai Univ., China
Andrezej Tarkowski, Embryologist, Polish [text missing]
Valentine Telegdi, Wolf Prize in Physics, Switzerland
Kirthi Tennakone, Physicist, Third World Academy, Sri Lanka
Walter Thirring, Physicist, Austrian & Pontifical Academies,
Austria
Donnall Thomas, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA
Jan Tinbergen, Nobel laureate, Economics; Netherlands
Samuel C. C. Ting, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA
James Tobin, Nobel laureate, Economics; USA
Alexander Todd, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Great Britain
Susumu Tonegawa, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Japan & USA
Cheng Kui Tseng, Oceanologist, Chinese & Third World
Academies, China
Hans Tuppy, Biochemist, Austrian & Pontifical Academies,
Austria
James Van Allen, Physicist, Crafoord Prize, USA
Simon van der Meer, Nobel laureate, Physics; Netherlands &
Switzerland
John Vane, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Great Britain
Harold Varmus, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA
Martha Vaughan, Biochemist, National Academy of Sciences,
USA
George Wald, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA
Henrik Wallgren, Zoologist, Society of Science & Letters,
Finland
E. T. S. Walton, Nobel laureate, Physics, Ireland
Prawase Wasi, Hematologist, Third World Academy, Thailand
Gerald Wasserburg, Geophysicist, Crafoord Prize, USA
James Watson, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA
Victor Weisskopf, Wolf Prize in Physics, USA
Thomas Weller, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA
Diter von Wettstein, Physiologist, Royal Academy of
Sciences, Denmark
Fred Whipple, Astronomer, National Academy of Sciences, USA
Gilbert White, Geographer, Tyler Prize, USA
Torsten Wiesel, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA
Jerome Wiesner, Physicist, Fmr. President, Mass. Inst. of
Tech., USA
Maurice Wilkins, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Great Britain
Geoffrey Wilkinson, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Great
Britain
Richard Willems, Geneticist, Estonian Biocentre, Estonia
Edward O. Wilson, Biologist, Crafoord Prize, USA
Lawrence A. Wilson, Agricultural Science, Third World
Academy, Trinidad
Evelyn Witkin, Biologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA
Yang Fujia, Physicist, Chinese & Third World Academies,
China
Alexander L. Yanshin, Geologist, Karpinsky Gold Medal,
Russia
Yongyuth Yuthavong, Biochemist; Director, National Sci. &
Tech. Devl. Agency, Thailand
Zhao Zhong-xian, Physicist, Chinese & Third World
Academies, China
Zhou Guang-zhao, Physicist; President, Chinese Academy of
Sciences;, China
Solly ZuckerInan, Zoologist, Royal Society, Great Britain

=========================================================

Over 1,500 members of national, regional, and international
science academies have signed the Warning. Sixtynine
nations from all parts of Earth are represented, including
each of the twelve most populous nations and the nineteen
largest economic powers. The full list includes a majority
of the Nobel laureates in the sciences. Awards and
institutional affiliations are listed for the purpose of
identification only. The Nobel Prize in medicine is for
physiology or medicine.

=========================================================

Union of Concerned Scientists, 96 Church Street,
Cambridge, Mass 02238-9105, USA
ucs@igc.apc.org
Phone - 617-547-5552 Fax - 617-864-9405


[Warning issued on November 18, 1992,

Via: http://www-formal.stanford.edu

Views: 45

Comment by Doug Reardon on September 21, 2009 at 9:11pm
Nah Nah Nah Nah Nah, see! they told us so!
Comment by Reggie on September 21, 2009 at 9:46pm
And the meek shall inherent the Earth. Meek is Bible speak for microbes.

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