I've wanted to put together a list of all those nasty theories that get in the way of divine/religious dogma. But I didn't think until now of a place (here) to start such a list.
I happen to think that the "theory of gravity" is a bad example, because I don't know of any people present or past who preached or taught something against a theory of gravity. It's the blatant, anti-science preaching/teaching (e.g. Creationism) that I'm more concerned with.
List theories here that people argued against once, before experimental determination and discovery of new evidence/observations, but are now widely known as truths.
Even list theories that failed, since one key to science is how to test ideas, learn from mistakes, and keep getting closer to the real truth!