History of Andalusia

from the andalusia-web.com

Since the times of the first metalworking (third millenium BC) the land between two oceans and two continents is a preferred target of many diverse people. The oldest known monarchy of "Tartessos" originates in the 11th century in southern Spain influenced by the Phoenician and the Greek. Agriculture and cattle breeding as well as mining industry and gold processing are the dominating activities of their trading civilisation.
They are followed by the Turdetanian, an Iberian tribe, later the Carthaginias found their own settlements.



During the 3rd Century BC the Romans beat the Carthaginian in the two Punic Wars, found and dominate for the next 700 years the "Baetica" province. Andalusia supplies the Roman Empire with food, oil, wine and metal. The philosopher Seneca and the first two emperors born outside of Rome come from Italica (near Seville): Trajan and Hadrian . Since the 3rd Century Rome looks more and more to the eastern world (Constantinople).


With the decline of Rome the Vandals, a northern Germanic people, conquer the land and give it its name: "Vandalusia". Their reign is of short duration, they are followed by the Visigoth, who settle leaded by their king Alarich II. on the Iberian peninsula and experience under the Christian bishops Leander and Isidor their prospering period.



At the beginning of the 8th Century the Arab cross the street of Gibraltar and spread fast on the Iberian peninsula. The independent Emirate Al-Andalus and later the Caliphate of Córdoba (challenging Bagdad) mark the blooming time of the Omayyade dynasty and thus the Arab culture in Andalusia. Córdoba becomes the center and melting pot of different cultures and religions. Trade, science, handicraft and arts experience a long succeedful period. Starting from 1031 the Caliphate disintegrates into small Islamic reigns. Almoravids and Almohads (Berber) alternate their rulership until the 13th Century. After the fall of Córdoba (1236) and Seville (1248) the Nasrid Kings maintain their kingdom in Granada for two and a half centuries more. The last Moor king Boabdil hands over the city of Granada to the Catholic Monarchs Isabel and Fernando in January 1492 and moves to the Alpujarra mountains.


With the discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus begins the golden age of Andalusia. Seville becomes the main place for all trading activities with the West Indies and the cultural center of Spain. Since 1503 Ships loaded with gold and silver from the New World dock since 1503 in the port of Seville. Unknown plants and food achieve to Europe and change agricultural and nutrition habits of the Europeans. Later Cádiz takes over the trade monopoly from Seville.
Under the strong influence of the Renaissance and the Baroque are constructed cathedrals, churches, palaces, public buildings and many new squares.
Political rivalries, economic mismanagement, the loss of the hegemony on the oceans and the efects of four epidemic pest deseases mark the beginning of the political and economic decline of Seville and whole Spain in the first half of the 17th Century.


Spain does not get out of the crises. The 18th Century begins with the Spanish War of succession, in whose process Gibraltar becomes British. Philipp V, the first Bourbone on the Spanish throne, lives a few years in Seville. The ideas of the French Illustration (Illumination) have a notable influence in the middle of the Century. Cádiz loses the monopoly of the trade with the New World in 1788.
The 19th Century Andalusa is involved in the Napoleonic Wars, which impacts the entire continent. At the same time the Spanish colonial empire declines and the conflicts about the succession of the Spanish throne are violent as well. In the mid of the Century Spain experience a time of social tensions and upcoming liberal revolutionary ideas. The first republic is restored after two years by the monarchy. At the end of the 19th Century Andalusia suffers again some revolts. The war against the USA marks the end of the colonial empire. The Spanish crown loses Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines.


In the first half of the 20th Century Spain is afflicted by social and political conflicts. After the dictatorship of Primo de Riveras follows the Second Republic. Spain does not participate in the two World Wars, but since 1936 the Civil War destroys large parts of the country. In his consequence the victorious general Franco governs the country up to his death in the year 1975. The coronation of King Juan Carlos I and mainly the restauration of the democracy open new possibilities for the different regions. Andalusia receives the status of an autonomous region. The economic and social progress of the sixties and seventies is strengthened in southern Spain by the boom of the tourism. The membershiop of Spain in the European Community (Union) creates also new perspectives for the Andalusian agricultural production.
 

>Read more details about the time table.

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Comment by Hope on February 13, 2011 at 8:23am

Ibn Rushd or Averroes

His school of philosophy is known as Averroism. He has been described by some as the founding father of secular thought in Western Europe and "one of the spiritual fathers of Europe"

 

*So, the golden age of Andalusia was due to secular thoughts.

Comment by Albert Bakker on February 13, 2011 at 8:34am

BBC Radio4's Melvyn Bragg had a nice episode on Averroes.

Comment by Hope on February 13, 2011 at 10:53am

Thanks to Albert and Doone,

The reason why I think that the golden age of Andalusia was due to secularism.
IS because,
I saw those evil muslim scholars speaking about the scientists in the andalusia with european guys,,  scholars say, Islam brought science and philosophy to Europe! Islam is the religion of science and philosophy…
Then they go back to thier muslims friends and say,
All those scientists and philosophers of the Andalusia were infidels, hypocrites..

covering themselves with Islam… philosophy is forbidden in Islam..

that’s why Allah punished them and destroyed their glory..

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