Often times when I engage in a debate with Muslims, I am told that Allah is transcendental, i.e. that he exists outside of space-time and that he is not temporal i.e. he does not exist in the physical world.
If we accept this assumption, then this leads to a number of problems one of the main problems being that in the Qu'ran Allah talks about angels and souls and their interaction in fact, Dr Zakir Naik argues that humans have souls and those souls have mass, my question is if Allah is transcendental, and our universe is temporal and souls are temporal since they are a physical measurable entity (Naik) how long would it take a soul (which has mass) to reach God? We have powerful telescopes and we can see billions of light-years in all directions it takes light-billions of years to travel that distance how long would it take a soul (which is made of mass) to reach God? It, can't go faster then the speed of light since any object which reaches closer to the speed of light it's mass increases thus, this a higher, and higher level of energy is required to accelerate the object hypothetically the objects mass will become infinite. It would take "forever" for a soul to reach Allah.
In another verse Allah talks about angels, and that angels carry out his commands and affairs (Qu'ran 79:1-9) - this apparently omnipotent entity needs something less powerful then-himself i.e. angels to carry out his affairs, so this means data has to travel lets say Allah's affair is to send data to Mohammed via the angel Jabreel the data would leave Allah and eventually arrive to Mohammed it would have to travel. That means Allah cannot possible be transcendent he has to be bounded by time the data would have to arrive to him. For example when Mohammed was caught having sex with Mariya Al-Quptia a slave girl in the bed of his wife Hafsa on the night he was supposed to be having sex with Hafsa, a huge argument breaks about between the Mohammed his his wives, so Mohammed gets pissed off he prays to Allah, and then some days later he gets a revelation which negates the promise he made the night before about not sleeping with a slave girl, and that the other wives need to shut up or Allah will get really mad with them (Muslim 9.3511, and Bukhari 3.43.648, 7.62.119). So its taken a whole day for information to arrive to Mohammed - so how can Muslims argue Allah is transcendental, when that is logically incompatible with reality?
Also, lets say in the future we become sufficiently advanced, and we can travel great distances can we get so far away from Allah that it would take his angels millions of light years to reach you? If Allah can just skip that can just interact with the universe then why does he need to be transcendental and why didn't he do that in the first place? If Allah is perfect, and omnipotent why can he be susceptible to irrationality? it would seem if Allah was capable to interact with the universe and truly is powerful then it is completely irrational for him to have pointless entities carrying out his affairs.