In 2008, The Times named Banks in their list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". In April 2013, Banks announced that he had inoperable cancer and was unlikely to live beyond a year.…See More
"Sometimes people claim to have committed crimes and it is later proven that they could not have done it. I don't know of a law that can be devised that ensures only truly guilty people are executed. Once you open the door, the wrongly…"
- software technician, marxian social-democrat, learning to speak Mandarin and read Simplified Chinese. - Career objectives: database administrator focusing on MBS Dynamics and MSSQL.
Sartrean Existentialism key points: Existence precedes essence. There is no human essence that exists prior to our actions. There is nothing in common, no universal Man as Kant would argue.
There is no essence that precedes historic existence. Individuals create their identity through their actions. A human creates an authentic self through transcending immanence, forming "projects".
Complete freedom. There are no rules, no ultimate values since there is no God or human essence upon which to base them. "If there is no God, then everything is permitted" (Dostoevsky).
No determinism. no accidents. I choose my war. I choose to be born. Complete responsibility. If we have complete freedom, then we are completely responsible. A person is entirely responsible for what he or she is since existence precedes essence. The entire responsibility for our actions is on our own shoulders.
Must choose for self and all humanity. In choosing for ourselves, we choose for all humanity. We create an image of what "man" ought to be in our epoch. I am thus responsible for myself and for all men, and I am creating a certain image of man as I would have him to be.
In fashioning myself, I fashion man." We act as universal legislators. ". . . one always ought to ask oneself what would happen if everyone did as one is doing; nor can one escape from that disturbing thought except by a kind of self-deception". Lying: "the act of lying implies the universal value which it denies."
Abandonment and anguish. We are alone, abandoned with no God or pre-existing essence, values or moral system. We are anxious because we have no basis for our choices given our complete freedom and responsibility. Example: Sartre's pupil in WWII. Neither Christianity, Kantianism, Utilitarianism or even his own feelings prior to deciding can give the pupil a basis for decision. After deciding, he knows what his values and feelings are.
General Definition of Bad Faith
1. To deny or pretend we are free and responsible
2. To deny our abandonment and anguish
3. Blaming outside events, persons, God, or appealing to external authority of any kind. Any attempt to bind present decision to pre-existent standards is inauthentic flight from responsibility.
4. To deny our facticity and our transcendence