Here is a list of novels where Atheism is the theme or an important theme. It would be great if anyone could recommend other Atheist fiction.
Kurt Vonnegut: Slaughterhouse 5, Breakfast of Champions, Cat's cradle
Saramago: Cain (my favourite), The gospel according to Jesus Christ, Journey of the elephant, most other books
Margaret Atwood: Cat's eye, Oryx and Crake, Year of the Flood, the Handmaidens tale
Robertson Davies: The Depford Trilogy (Fifth Business especially)
Dave Eggers: A heartbreaking work of a staggering genius
Rushdie: The Satanic Verses
Heller: Catch 22
D. Adams: Hitchhikers guide to the galaxy series
Moliere: Tartuffe (play)
Carl Sagan: Contact
Pullman: His dark materials series.
A. Rand: Atlas Shrugged (if you can get through the blech)
A. Camus: The stranger
Ernest Hemingway: Farewell to Arms
Cioran: The trouble with being born
Joyce: A portrait of an artist as a young man
Chabon: The amazing adventures of Kavalier and Clay
Turgenev: Fathers and sons
V Woolf: Mrs. Daloway
J. Orozco: Delano
Jane Gardam: God on the rock
Salinger: Catcher in the rye
S. Pinker: 36 arguments for the existence of god: A work of fiction
Philip Roth: Nemesis (and most of his books)
R. Miller: Death and other taxes
J. Morrow: Towing Jehovah
J. Frey: A million little pieces
Graham Greene: The heart of the matter
Proust: In search of lost time
Ken Follett: The pillars of the earth
A. Miller: Death of a salesman
Gore Vidal: Live from Golgotha
Great starter's list, Davis! As the "Creative Atheist" blogger for Patheos.com (and two other blogs), I've been paying close attention to more current novels by atheists [plus because I've written one myself ; )]. See, for example 3 New Books Brights Might Like. Also, Stephen Perry, who recently published his own multi-mythic (i.e., atheist/agnostic/humanist) book of poetry, has compiled a huge list of atheist books on his (our joint) site. Here are some links:
Oh, and the "36 Arguments for the Existence of God" novel isn't by Steven Pinker, but his brilliant wife, Rebecca Newberger Goldstein (I noticed that because I interviewed her for my PsychToday blog and she also liked my own novel, which was beyond kind of her).
I love everything by Saramago; Cain is a favorite, but also Blindness, All the Names, and The Cave.
The final link is a great resource. Thanks Susan. Yes ... almost everything that Saramago wrote was great. I sometimes see him as a Mediterranean brother of Kurt Vonnegut.
I just ordered Saramago's "Journey of the Elephant" and discovered it is based on a true story.
It was one of the biggest losses to the world of literature and humanism when Saramago passed away. He had just perfected his craft with his two last books. I hope you enjoy The Journey of the Elephant. It isn't as focused on religion as Cain ... but it's still a super unique and fantastically written short novel. It's loosely based on a real historical event.