1) quasi-crystals, that tile space with 5 fold symmetry in complete defiance to science.

 These crystals must know where they are going  a-priori, but how? There are theories about collapsing a quantum mechanical cloud residing in Hilbert space. Regardless, the implication is that there is a higher reality to what is immediately observable by the senses. 


2) Light beam that always find there original direction despite refracting down a course that allows 50%  of a the light to go the other direction. How do these quanta of energy remember their original direction down a maze?


3) Spooky action at a distance. Two particle the product of the two slit experiment are mechanistically connected despite being separated by breath of the known universe.  if one particle suddenly spins one way, the other instantaneously spins the other way.  There is a higher reality to what you perceive?. Is everything connected because everything originate from the same singularity at the Big Bang and spooky action a distance is a telltale sign?


4) The quantum mechanical gaps in the current theory of cosmology such that the current theory of cosmic inflation is incomplete or simply completely wrong.


5) Evolution addresses morphological changes.  However how on earth does the neuro-circuitry catch up up to make physical mutations functional. How is the new neuro- programming laid down.

Vertical take of aircrafts and swept wing aircrafts required years of engineering and deliberate programming to achieve what they barely do now. But how do neuro-nets mutate into far more sophisticate programming than we can ever accomplished?


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Damn.  I was hoping for photos of gorillas.
Regarding (5) Insect wings are more sophisticated than our aircraft wings - go look at a few images from an electron microscope and you will see what I mean

"5) Evolution addresses morphological changes. However how on earth does the neuro-circuitry catch up up to make physical mutations functional. How is the new neuro- programming laid down.
Vertical take of aircrafts and swept wing aircrafts required years of engineering and deliberate programming to achieve what they barely do now. But how do neuro-nets mutate into far more sophisticate programming than we can ever accomplished?"

Read the blog Starts with a Bang for a good explanation of the veracity of Cosmic Inflation - your question (4)

Your item number 3 is part of Quantum Physics - you can learn more by reading a few Science blogs and books.

There is probably an explanation for items (1) and (2) if you look.

Everyone, please feel welcome to give links to what you believe are explanations, if they exist.

But "go to a blog "or" read a book", is just to general. 

I know that the current cover of Scientific American, highlights statement 4, and questions the standard model. But the last I looked, there are no peer reviewed explanations to all 5 statements


What are the odds? Part 2: Cosmic Inflation!

Category: Physics • big bang
Posted on: March 16, 2011 9:51 PM, by Ethan Siegel


"It is said that there's no such thing as a free lunch. But the Universe is the ultimate free lunch." -Alan Guth
We've talked about the Big Bang too many times to count, and why it's easily the leading theory regarding the origin of the Universe. It's the only cosmic idea we have that can explain all three of the following observations:



1.) The Hubble Expansion of the Universe. When we look out at distant galaxies, we find that the farther a galaxy is from us, the faster it's receding from us! It was realized pretty early on that this is because space itself is expanding!


This means that the farther away a galaxy gets from us, the faster it will speed away in the future. Weird!

So logically, you reason, in the past, things were closer together!


Well, what are the consequences of that? If things were denser and space was smaller, than things were hotter in the past, which means that we can look at what happens if things get hot enough.


Well, if you heat normal matter, the electrons get ionized, and so there should be a "leftover glow" from when your atoms went from being an ionized plasma to being a neutral gas. And that energy should have redshifted into the infrared, or even farther, into the microwave.


2.) That's the Cosmic Microwave Background! And its discovery in 1964 (and amazingly precise measurement, above, by COBE in the 1990s) confirmed that not only does it exist, but it's the exact temperature and spectrum as predicted by the Big Bang!

In fact, if we go back farther, what would we expect? Perhaps it was so hot and dense that the plasma could even destroy individual nuclei, so that only protons, neutrons, electrons, and radiation were left?


(Image credit: Joanna Griffin.)

Well, you'd expect very precise predictions for the amount and type of nuclear fusion you get when the Universe becomes cool enough to form stable nuclei that aren't blasted apart by the radiation. So we come to #3...

3.) The abundances of the light elements due to Big-Bang nucleosynthesis.


And that's exactly what we get! So the Big Bang looks great all around!

But it's a 65-year-old idea; there are a bunch of things it doesn't say anything about. Such as...


(Image credit: 2-micron All-Sky Survey.)

Why is there all this structure -- stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies and more -- if the Universe was so smooth and even at the start?

It's a good question, and one that the Big Bang, on its own, doesn't answer. What else doesn't the Big Bang do a good job of answering?


(Image credit: SNAP team.)

Why is the Universe spatially flat? It could, in principle, be any shape or curvature, and what we find, experimentally, is that it's really, ridiculously flat. In fact even looking at the temperature fluctuations as we measure them today...


...we find that the curvature of the Universe is less than 2%, out of our observable Universe that's 93 billion light years across! That's pretty flat.

And then there's the nagging problem of temperature.


The Universe -- and in particular the Microwave Background -- is the same exact temperature in all directions in space. But why should that be? Stuff on one side of the Universe is completely disconnected, and always has been, from stuff on the other side. Yet they're the same temperature as surely as though they had always been touching one another. How's that? The Big Bang doesn't say.

And finally...


Where's all the weird stuff? If our high-energy theories are correct, the Universe shouldn't just have a microwave background and the observed abundances of the light elements, but should also have a bunch of other weird relics, like magnetic monopoles, cosmic strings, and other topological defects. Yet not a single one has ever been found.

So, Big Bang, what are we gonna do with you? Well, if you were Alan Guth, you'd find onetheoretical solution to all of these problems, and it would do what any good scientific theory would do: make a new prediction, too!


And that's what inflation is. It says that, in order to set up the Big Bang, just prior to this hot, dense, expanding state, the Universe was expanding exponentially fast, doing the following things:

  1. Stretching space -- whatever shape it was in before -- to be so large that it appears flat.
  2. Taking a teeny-tiny region that was in equilibrium -- where it all had a chance to reach the same temperature -- and stretches it across the Universe to fill our entire,observable Universe with what was once that small, uniform-temperature region.
  3. Taking whatever existed before -- magnetic monopoles, cosmic strings, etc. -- andinflating them away, so that at most, one of them exists in our Universe.
  4. And finally -- that new prediction -- quantum fluctuations that exist during inflation give a prediction for the type and spectrum of fluctuations that started off in our Universe.



This last one is particularly important, because these fluctuations will not only be measurable in the cosmic microwave background (but weren't in 1979, when Guth first wrote about it), but also in the large-scale structure of our Universe!

So when we made these measurements of the microwave background...


...and of large-scale structure...


we were overjoyed to find that they matched the prediction of inflation!

And that's why, unlike for Supersymmetry at the LHC, I think that there's about a 98% chance that inflation is correct!

This also means that every single image you see that places the Big Bang before inflation in the cosmic timeline:


is not only wrong, but dishonest. Why? Because we have no idea what happened prior to inflation, and by the very nature of inflation, we can't. That's as far back as physics allows us to go, at least, right now.

So to recap, inflation is the thing that happens that sets up the Big Bang. Based on what we've seen, it stretches the Universe flat, makes it the same temperature in all directions, gets rid of any junk that was lying around beforehand, and creates the proper fluctuations on all scales -- small and large -- to grow into the stars, galaxies, and clusters that we have at present. If I were offering odds, I'd bet you 50-to-1 that inflation has it right. And that's 

Birds are quantum physicists!

A paper appeared last year in Current Biology describing the ability of birds to see magnetic fields. Many birds respond to changes in the earth’s magnetic field, and the theory is that they use this ability to navigate during migration. As I mentioned in my blog, scientists have been trying to figure out just how birds can accomplish this amazing feat. Several hypotheses involve the protein cryptochrome, a molecule that seems to be nearly one-of-a-kind as far as biological structures go. Now scientists have taken the awesome factor for this mechanism one step higher: a paper in PRL suggest that these birds may actually be using quantum entanglement in their navigational systems.

For those uninitiated into the world of really tiny physics, entanglementbasically describes two electrons that are inextricably linked. Any time you subject an electron to a magnetic field, you affect its “spin,” a quantum property that is too complex to be explained in this short post. However, if that electron is entangled with another, then any time electron “A” changes its spin, electron “B” will react as well, even though it was never subjected to the magnetic field. Sounds creepy huh? This is a concept that dates back to the good old days of Einstein, who famously described it as “spooky action at a distance.”

So how might birds use this? The theory is that in a bird’s eye are pairs of these “quantum entangled” electrons. Occasionally, one of these electrons will move away from the other, causing it to experience a slightly different magnetic field than its partner. The bird measures this change in magnetic field by measuring the quantum state of the two electrons. Of particular interest is the duration of the entangled state for these electrons. Since the birds are responding to an oscillating magnetic field, they must maintain this quantum state for a long enough time to capture the extent of change for the field.

As an analogy, if I wanted to measure how much the waves in a pool rose and fell, I would use a measuring device attached to an inner tube. If the pool height went up three feet and back down again every 5 seconds, then I would need to be measuring for at least 5 seconds to get an accurate reading of how quickly the pool was changing. In the same way, electrons in the bird’s eye must remain in the entangled state for long enough to measure the entire fluctuation of the magnetic field. The authors calculated how long such a period of time needs to be, and found that it far exceeded the lifetime of entangled electrons observed in the lab.

If you think this sounds hard to believe, you’re not alone. Many experiments have been performed on artificially-created quantum entanglement, but nearly all of them require very specific environmental conditions that are never seen in nature (such as a temperature close to absolute zero). To see such an effect in a warm-blooded living organism is astonishing.

It’s discoveries like this that make me love the world of science. Quantum physics has been around for less than a century. Go back a hundred years, and you would have found a number of physicists who theorized that we were just at the cusp of “figuring out” the entire universe. Now, we’ve got a new field of physics that almost nobody understands, and yet we’re finding living creatures that utilize these mysterious properties at a fundamental level.

Further reading:
Wired blog coverage
More info on magnetic navigation from Ed Yong

ResearchBlogging.orgErik Gauger, Elisabeth Rieper, John J. L. Morton, Simon C. Benjamin, & Vlatko Vedral (2009). Sustained Quantum Coherence and Entanglement in the Avian Compass Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 040503 (2011) arXiv: 0906.3725v5

ResearchBlogging.orgStapput K, Güntürkün O, Hoffmann KP, Wiltschko R, & Wiltschko W (2010). Magnetoreception of directional information in birds requires nondegraded vision.Current biology : CB, 20 (14), 1259-62 PMID: 20619654

Smells of irreducible  complexity, IMHO.

This is why I believe there is a higher reality to what is observable by the eye.

The more we know, the more mysterious existence becomes, science rocks!

What  also knocks me out of my socks are muons that change flavor in mid flight.

spooky acting  particles. Like a thrown baseball oscillating between being tennis ball in mid flight. 

Apparently there are NO 800 pound Gorrila's

Adult male silverbacks range in weight from 140–200 kg (310–440 lb). Occasionally, a silverback of over  225 kg (500 lb) has been recorded in the wild and obese gorillas in captivity have reached a weight of 270 kg (600 lb) -- far short of 800 lb.

Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gorilla
Comforting, still wouldn't want to meet one.

Completely untrue. Here's an 8000lb gorilla destroying a car!

It looks more like a baboon to me but maybe there were 800 pound gorrilas in the past.
Very good background information for the layman.


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